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  • Open access
  • 36 Reads
Effects of partially replacing wheat flour with tiger nut flour on the physical and sensory properties of different types of bread

This study investigated the effects of partially replacing wheat flour (WF) with tiger nut flour (TNF) on the physical and sensory properties of different bread types. The replacements was done at WF: TNF ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 for Butter bread (Bb), Tea bread (Tb) and Sugar bread (Sb). Partially replacing WF with TNF increased bread brownness, color saturation and decreased lightness, showing the highest impact on Sb, followed by Tb and Bb. Also, bread specific volume decreased significantly after 20 % (Bb), 25 % (Tb) and 30 % (Sb) TNF replacements. Furthermore, replacements using 30 % TNF increased crumb hardness from approx. 1.87 N to 3.64 N (Bb), 3.46 N to 8.14 N (Tb) and 6.71 N to 11.39 N (Sb), and caused significant increases after 3 d storage to 17.80 N (Tb) and 21.08 N (Sb). Only a minimal effect on hardness of Bb (4.32N) was observed after storage. Replacement of WF with 10 % TNF for Bb or 25 % TNF for Tb led to significantly higher consumer (N=56) scores for all attributes and overall acceptability, but no significant effects on the overall acceptability of Sb was observed. Flash profiling showed frequently used descriptors for Bb as firm, moist, buttery, smooth and astringent. After 10 % TNF replacement, descriptors were chewy, firm, sweet, porous, dry, caramel whilst that of 30 % TNF were grainy, chocolate, brown, nutty and flaky. Partially replacing WF with TNF increased the lipids, fiber and minerals but decreased the protein and carbohydrate contents of bread. Replacements using TNF led to different physical and sensory changes depending on bread type, showing higher consumer acceptability for Bb, followed by Tb and Sb. The study is relevant for utilizing tiger nuts as an ingredient in bakery products.

  • Open access
  • 49 Reads
Composition, Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Tropical Almond (Terminalia catappa L.) Oil as a Novel Source of Lipids

The demand for edible fats and oils has sparked interest in alternative vegetable oil sources with a focus on health benefits and new industrial applications. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the potential of using underutilized Tropical almond (TA) (Terminalia catappa) nut oil as a source of novel dietary lipids. The fatty acid profile of the screw pressed TA oil was analyzed by Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Physicochemical properties, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties were evaluated and compared with coconut and almond oils extracted under similar conditions. Thermal behaviour and shelf life of TA oil were comparatively analyzed using Differential scanning calorimetry and Schaal’s oven test respectively. Interestingly the yield of TA oil (48.67±1.76%) was significantly higher than the almond oil (39.0±0.57%). The TA oil contained more than 56% of unsaturated fatty acids, particularly 31.3% oleic and 24.9% linoleic being the predominant fatty acids. Palmitic acid was the predominant (38.9%) saturated fatty acid. The melting and the crystallization temperatures of TA oil were 14.29oC and (-0.75oC) respectively while melting points of almond and coconut oil were -10.63oC and 24.8oC. The physicochemical properties including specific gravity, refractive index, peroxide, acid value, and iodine value were comparable with coconut oil and they were consistent with the CODEX and SLS standards. The estimated shelf life of TA oil was more than 9 months. Moreover, TA oil showed significantly higher phenolic content (2.26±0.08 mg GAE/100 g) and flavonoid content (10.46±1.47 mg QE/100 g) than almond and coconut oils. Further, TA oil showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 1574.93±3.44 mg/ml for DPPH, 340.28±1.23 mg/ml for ABTS, and a reducing power of 4.68±0.33 mM Trolox eq/100 g in FRAP assays. Hence, TA oil possessed excellent physicochemical and functional properties suitable to be used as a novel, healthy edible oil.

  • Open access
  • 21 Reads
Determination of 4(5)-methylimidazole in sugar-amino acid aqueous systems by UPLC-Q-ToF-MS

4(5)-Methylimidazole (4(5)MEI) has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as possibly carcinogenic to humans [1]. It can be formed during the caramelization procedure and the Maillard reaction as a result of the thermal processing of foods [2]. Although several studies concerning the formation of 4(5)MEI in Maillard reaction model systems exist (mainly sugars with ammonia), data concerning the formation of 4(5)MEI by the reaction between amino acids and sugars are still scarce [2]. In this study, an Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) method was developed for the determination of 4(5)MEI in aqueous model systems containing sugars (glucose and fructose) and amino acids (proline, phenylalanine, lysine, and tyrosine) after thermal processing at 100 °C. Since studies on the formation of 4(5)MEI in honey are scarce, the above-mentioned compounds were intentionally chosen as they are some of the main components of honey. The results showed that the 4(5)MEI was formed in all model systems, with the highest concentrations to be determined in fructose-proline (3.5 μg mL-1) and fructose-tyrosine (3.0 μg mL-1) aqueous model systems. It is concluded that further research is required to examine whether this compound can be formed under any circumstance in honey.


  1. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. 4-Methylimidazole. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog.
    Risks Hum. 2013, 101, 447–459.
  2. Revelou, P.K.; Xagoraris, M.; Alissandrakis, A.; Pappas, C.S.; Tarantilis, P.A. A review of the analytical methods for the determination of 4(5)-methylimidazole in food matrices. Chemosensors 2021, 9(11), 322.
  • Open access
  • 49 Reads
Use of patent information to characterize innovation and trends in the application of “Moroccan Argan Oil” in the food applications

Argan oil is a non-refined vegetable oil produced from the Argan tree (Argania spinosa L.), a species endemic only to southwestern Morocco. Argan oil has been used in this country for centuries, either as food or applied to the skin for cosmetic or medicinal purposes. Depending on the use of roasted or raw argan kernels, food or cosmetic grade oil is obtained. The use of roasted kernels produces an edible oil with a nutty and roasty flavor. Argan oil functions well as a component and a condiment in preparations for both savory and sweet foods. Furthermore, it can be added to vegetables, salads, and soups or drizzled over food just before serving. Argan oil has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and numerous health benefits. It is primarily made up of unsaturated fatty acids and a variety of phenolic and tocopherol compounds that improve heart health, help with diabetes, and have anticancer properties.

The purpose of this study is to analyze patent filings on argan oil that were used in food preparations all over the world between 2002 and 2022. This study encapsulates information which could be used as a reference by researchers in the fields of nutrition and food engineering, as well as those interested especially in vegetable oils. The state of the art has been reviewed by introducing what has been patented in relation to argan oil. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the patentability has been provided by determining publication years, classifications, inventors, applicants, owners, and jurisdictions.

As a result, a total of 107 patent documents (i.e., patent applications and granted patents) related to argan oil for food applications were found. The United States leads the patent race in this sector as well, and the University of Arkansas is ranked as the top applicant, indicating that it is a research university leading the way. Based on patent classifications, most found patents and inventions concern fatty acids or derivatives, oils, as well as plant extracts. Furthermore, research and development are based on the investigating or analyzing of food compositions, functions of food ingredients, or processes for food or foodstuffs, which are concentrated in most patents.

Finally, this work, which gives an analysis of the past, present, and future trends, leads to various recommendations that could help one to plan and innovate a research strategy in the area of argan oil.

  • Open access
  • 48 Reads
Is there any possibility to use ultrasounds, high-pressure homogenization or pulsed electric field in single cell oil release from oleaginous yeast cells?

Microbial oil (SCO) is called lipids accumulated in the cells of oleaginous microorganisms, including yeast, in amount exceeding 20% of dry mass, which are a valuable source of fatty acids in the human diet. In order to facilitate the extraction of storage lipids from cells, methods of physical and chemical pretreatment of biomass are used to break the barrier of the cell wall and membrane of these microorganisms to the action of organic solvents, which are used during traditional extraction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of unconventional methods of extracting microbial oil from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast cells. Pulsed electric field (PEF), cell disintegration by ultrasonic waves and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) were used. The use of unconventional methods turned out to be ineffective in the extraction of intracellular lipids of the yeast compared to methods involving organic solvents such as chloroform, methanol and hexane. Nevertheless, the use of a pulsed electric field with a field strength of 200 J/g or high-pressure homogenization (700 and 1100 bar) proved to be effective as pre-treatment techniques of Y. lipolytica yeast cells (cell permeabilization) for the high yield extraction of intracellular lipids using the extraction method with organic solvents.

  • Open access
  • 45 Reads
Chemical and nutritional characterization of by-products from the wine industry. Source of healthy ingredients for the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional foods

The food industry generates large amounts of organic waste, which generally accumulates in landfills or is burned, causing environmental problems. However, many studies indicate that this waste is rich in bioactive compounds, so it could be revalued for transformation into high value-added products, thus favoring the circular and sustainable economy, reducing environmental impact and climate change. It is estimated that the wine industry (Vitis vinifera L.) produces up to 30% by weight of waste in relation to the material used, these include skins, seeds and pomace, which are dietary sources rich in phenolic compounds, minerals, fatty acids and fiber which have shown beneficial activities for health, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and even anticancer activities, both in vitro and in vivo. In this sense, a chemical characterization (profile of minerals, phenolic compounds and fatty acids) was carried out in dehydrated and ground seeds of Vitis vinifera L, and in the oily extract, obtained by supercritical fluids (SCFE) at 20 MPa. The quantification of minerals was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), the identification and quantification of the phenolic profile was performed by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the profile of fatty acids studied by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The main minerals found were calcium, potassium and magnesium. Emphasizing the calcium 22.66 g/kg in the oily extract compared to the seeds 7.8 g/kg. Potassium concentration was 3.9 g/kg in seeds and 1.53 g/kg in the extract, while 1.4 g/kg and 0.59 g/kg of magnesium corresponded to seeds and extract, respectively. Regarding the polyphenol profile, the seeds mainly contain dihydroxybenzoic acid 42.580 mg/kg, catechin 81.05 mg/kg, quercetin 4.856 mg/kg and resveratrol 1 mg/kg as main phenols, while the oily extract mainly presents oleacein 156.942 mg/kg, hydroxytyrosol 10.226 mg/kg and Tyrosol 8.644 mg/kg. Additionally, a profile of healthy fatty acids was obtained, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) being the majority fraction 71.4%, highlighting oleic acids 16868 mg/kg, and linoleic acid 82606 mg/kg. Our characterization shows that these by-products are a source of bioactive ingredients, which provide important beneficial effects for health, mainly for the prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress and that can be used in the formulation of functional foods or nutraceutical products. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to confirm the potential in humans and prove the safety of these ingredients.

  • Open access
  • 21 Reads
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Plant-based diets are gaining popularity and vegan and vegetarian frozen desserts are trending. Sorbets fit well in this concept, and can be seen as healthy ice cream alternatives. This study aims at evaluating the sorbet recipe alteration with the inclusion of different percentages of Zizyphus jujuba powder, and Stevia rebaudiana as a possible sugar substituent, resulting in a control sample and five variations. Three sorbet matrices contained jujube powder in different concentrations (5, 10, 10%), while in the other two, sugar was substituted with stevia and jujube, respectively. Peaches from the “Laskava” (native Bulgarian) variety were utilized as the primary ingredient.

The new sorbet matrices were characterized based on their moisture and ash content, overrun, melting behavior, melting rate, water holding capacity, pH, nutritional data, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, vitamin C content, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The microbial load and CIELAB color of the sorbet alternatives was also evaluated. A sensory evaluation revealed the most preferred variant in terms of its appearance (n=6), aroma (n=5), flavor (n=5), mouthfeel (n=7), and aftertaste (n=5).

The soluble solids content was in the range from 17.50 to 33.03%, while the ash and moisture contents varied from 0.36 to 5.21%, and 63.77 to 80.21%, respectively. The calculated overrun of the studied samples fluctuated from 8.11 to 12.32%. The melting rate was well related to the melting behavior of the sorbet variations. There was a resemblance in the color of all studied samples with lightness ranging from 42.13±3.18 to 57.91±4.27. The calculated energy was established to vary between 68.60 and 158.39 kcal with carbohydrates being the most abundant (8.98-33.30 g/100g). Not all sorbet variations were well accepted by the consumer panel. However, results uncovered a potential for the development of peach sorbet matrices with added value and a reasonable consumer acceptability. Further research can perfect the recipe and deliver a source for comparison with other frozen desserts.

  • Open access
  • 34 Reads
Food-based intervention strategies for iron deficiency prevention

Currently, in the development of food technologies, an urgent issue is the creation of biologically complete food products. It is well-known that deficiency to various elements has noticeable effects on human health. One of these areas is devoted to solving the problem of preventing iron deficiency states that arise due to iron deficiency in the diet. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common medical conditions worldwide. The analysis of statistics and the accumulation of new scientific facts about the pathological processes associated with iron deficiency provide grounds for confirming the fact that the fight against this phenomenon is an actual process. Current strategies for the prevention of this condition, one way or another related to food. The analysis of scientific publications made it possible to identify the main food-based intervention strategies: food and nutrition education with food diversification, biofortification, iron supplementation, iron fortification of certain foods and food-to-food fortification. Finally, we discuss these strategies for prevention of iron deficiency.

  • Open access
  • 63 Reads
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Plant based diets are a vital way for people to improve their health and reduce the risk of chronic illness. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is a tropical climacteric fruit, belonging to Moraceae family, is native to Western Ghats of India and common in Asia, Africa, and some regions in South America. ‘The poor man’s fruit’ has been mentioned as ‘Panasa’ in ayurvedic texts such as the Charaka Samhita, Susruta Samhita. It is the largest edible fruit in the world. Jackfruit is rich in nutrients including carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals. The jackfruit’s seed to rind has the health benefits. It is effective in constipation, osteoporosis, anemia etc.

The unripen fleshy parts are used to make different recipes. The flesh in fully ripen stage can be eaten directly as fruit, also can make different food products such as Jam, Ice cream, Jellies etc.

The parts of jackfruit tree including fruits, leaves, bark have been used as medicines due to its anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and hypoglycemic effects. The aim of this review is to establish the health benefit of jackfruit on human health.

  • Open access
  • 40 Reads
Immobilization of whole-cell Yarrowia lipolytica catalysts on the surface of Luffa cylindrica sponge

Luffa cylindrica (also known as Luffa sponge) is a vegetable from the Cucurbitaceae family, culinary popular in Asian countries. The fruit of this plant has a specific fibrous structure and after drying it adopts a three-dimensional mesh structure. Due to its physicochemical features, it is now increasingly used in the cosmetics, pharmaceutical and materials industries.

The aim of this study was to determine the potential ability of the Luffa sponge to bind microorganisms on its surface. The research was carried out with the use of Yarrowia lipolytica KKP379 yeast. Sorption capacity of Luffa cylindrica was assessed on the basis of the measurement of the optical density of the medium, the yield of yeast dry biomass, the mass of cells multiplied in the medium and adsorbed on the Luffa sponge and their extracellular catalytic activity.

The research confirmed that the open, three-dimensional, fibrous structure of the Luffa sponge shows good sorption abilities and can be an excellent biomaterial for binding whole cells of microorganisms. A large amount of reactive functional groups allows the adsorption of a large number of cells. 1 g of dried Luff sponge is able to adsorb about 0.64 g of yeast dry cell mass. The efficiency of binding of microorganisms is much higher (by approx. 25%) when the biopolymer is introduced into the medium at the beginning of the cultivation (when introducing the inoculum).