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  • 86 Reads
Isoflavones in Transylvanian soybeans genotypes
Published: 06 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop, grown worldwide as the most valuable plant-based source of protein known to mankind, being one of the cheapest and convenient sources of protein available to date. Protein and lipid combined make up more than 60% of soybean seeds on dry weight basis. Besides macronutrients, these seeds contain a wide area of biologically active substances, such as isoflavones, phytates, lipids, phytoalexins, saponins, lectins, vitamins, carbohydrates, phytosterols, carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, etc. As a result, soy food intake has been shown to have several beneficial effects, such as those on cardiovascular diseases and cancer risk factors, on lowering the incidence of diabetes and increased tissue sensitivity to insulin, on osteoporosis’ prevention, etc. Among the bioactive substances, isoflavones are important phytoestrogens, being associated mainly with women’s health and increasingly used in dietary supplements. Since up to date there are no data on the content of these substances in Romanian soybeans genotypes, hence a proper assessment of isoflavones’ intake from these was not possible, the major aim of this work was to establish the content of isoflavones from several commercial registered Transylvanian soybeans genotypes, created at the Research & Development Station for Agriculture, Turda. The targeted aglycones from the analyzed matrices were genistein, glycitein and daidzein, while the glycosides were daidzin, glycitin and genistin. A simple, reliable, fast and sensitive method has been developed for the analysis of these compounds using high performance liquid chromatography, accomplished with a Perkin Elmer Flexar UHPLC system with UV detection, enabling the separation of targeted isoflavones in less than 9 minutes. Despite each genotype showed a particular isoflavone pattern, depending mainly on the genetic factors; the concentrations of the studied isoflavones recorded relative small variations. The major isoflavones were found to be glycitin (up to 128.37 mg/ 100 g) and daidzin (up to 73.36 mg/ 100 g), while genistein, glycitein and daidzein were found only in trace amounts (0.24 – 1.79 mg/ 100 g). This study should provide a framework for new applied researches for both plant breeding as well as a new method for quality control of soybeans’ products.

  • Open access
  • 104 Reads
Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activities, fatty acids, and sensorial characteristics of almond (Prunus dulcis) after roasting and blanching
Published: 06 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

Considering production area and consumer preference, almond is one of the major nuts worldwide, mainly due to the recognized health benefits provided by its consumption. These benefits are related to the fruit composition of bioactive compounds and fatty acids, which also impact the sensorial characteristics. Almond is often eaten raw or after undergoing some processing procedures that can result in negative or positive changes in chemical and sensorial attributes. The present work was carried out to provide information on the effects of roasting and blanching on the contents of bioactive compounds, fatty acids in four neglected Portuguese almond cultivars (Casanova, Molar, Pegarinhos and Refêgo) in comparison with two foreign cultivars (Ferragnès and Glorieta), and their antioxidant activities and sensorial characteristics. Overaal, results show that levels of bioactive compounds (total phenolics and total flavonoids) and antioxidant activities increased with roasting (except for Refêgo), and decreased with blanching. The fatty acid profiles of raw kernels of all cultivars were generally identical, although Refêgo exhibited a high content of α‐linolenic acid. Following roasting and blanching, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., γ-linolenic and α‐linolenic acid) increased while those of saturated fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid), monounsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic and nervonic acids), and several health lipid indices (e.g., atherogenic and thrombogenic index) decreased. Roasting positively affected the perception of skin color and sweetness of Ferragnès and Glorieta, and skin roughness of Molar and Pegarinhos. Blanching led to positive changes in textural properties of Refêgo and Pegarinhos. This work offers novel data on the nutritive and eating qualities of neglected almond cultivars of interest to the scientific community, growers, and consumers. The finding reported here could be useful in the selection or rejection of fruits from a given cultivar to be used by the industry, and might motivate efforts for genotype conservation and fruit valorization.

  • Open access
  • 166 Reads
Published: 06 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

Historically the use of herbicides in complex and diverse biological systems to control invasive plants has led to controversy due to the negative impact on the environment and weeds resistance cases. Herbicides application in agriculture has increased over the last 30 years, triggered by the persistence and emerging new invasive weeds. Glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in the world, is often used to control invasive weeds. In this study, we analysed the effects of glyphosate on agricultural soil properties when it was applied to control the invasive plant giant reed (Arundo donax).

The study was conducted in four areas in the North-East of Spain. Glyphosate was applied at 10 L/ha. Preliminary sampling was conducted in order to determine the initial soil properties and six months after, soil samples were taken to determine the changes in the structural and chemical properties (mg HCO3/kg, mg CO3/kg, Kjeldahl nitrogen, organic and ammoniacal nitrogen, soil texture, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and total K, Mg, Na, P), including glyphosate soil concentration.

The results showed that there were not significant changes in the physical and chemical soil parameters which would influence the composition of these environments. Glyphosate concentration was not detected in the second sample sets because the residues were below the limit of quantification of the instruments used according to the standard that regulates their analysis. Our findings were consistent with the literature referring to the properties of glyphosate. However, it is necessary to study in deep other areas of the pesticides evaluation, life ecotoxicology and human toxicology, in order to safeguard that its application does not pose an unacceptable risk to human or animal health or the environment, as established in the European regulation for the authorization of plant protection products (Regulation (EC) nº 1107/2009) and the Directive of Sustainable Use of Pesticides (Directive 2009/128/EC) in 2011.

  • Open access
  • 39 Reads
Variability of selected traits in meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) plants with different susceptibility to seed shattering
Published: 06 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

In meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), a perennial fodder grass plant characterized by high quality and yield potential, seed shattering makes seed production difficult. The objective of the research was to compare two subpopulations, differing in a tendency to seed shattering, in respect of variability in the beginning of the heading and flowering stages, morphological traits (plant height and panicle length), and changes occurring at the site of the bonding between the caryopsis and the pedicel. The subpopulations were obtained by divergent selection carried out in the years 2008-2011 on four meadow fescue cultivars. The selected genotypes were cloned and tested in the years 2011-2017, and further selection was performed. Significant variability in years and subpopulations in respect of the tested traits was found. The subpopulation with a low tendency to seed shattering was characterized by a 2-3-day delay in the beginning of the heading and flowering stages. However, in both the subpopulations good flowering stage synchronization was found, its variability being several times smaller compared with the heading stage. Between the starting dates of these stages a significant correlation was found (r=0.828; p<0.01). The clones with a high tendency to seed shattering were approximately 7 cm shorter, while the length of panicles was similar in both the subpopulations. The analysis with the use of a scanning microscope showed that in genotypes with a low tendency to shattering the formation of the abscission layer was four days late, which may confirm the effectiveness of the carried out selection.

  • Open access
  • 75 Reads
Mediterranean lupines as an alternative protein source to soybean
Published: 06 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

Soybean is the most commonly used protein supplement of plant origin in animal diets. However, its high price and environmental impacts of production and transport to global markets stimulate producer’s interest in alternative use of locally produced feed ingredients including grain legumes. Lupin is one of the major grain legumes economically cultivated in Europe. Their seeds are characterized by high protein and dietary fiber content, presenting a high nutritional value for animal feeding. There is the need for screening new alternatives that can replace soybean by traditional protein sources with nutritional and commercial value for human and animal consumption.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sowing date on the potential of 3 lupines varieties well adapted to Mediterranean climatic conditions and soils from North Portugal as an alternative protein source to human and animal feed. The species and varieties tested were white lupine (Lupinus albus L.), cv. Tango, narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), cv. Estoril, and yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), cv. Cardiga. Four sowing dates with 3-weeks interval were tested from early September to November. The sowing was performed manually in a split-plot completed randomized block design with plots of 10m2 each and 4 replications. The harvest was carried out during the month of June. Agronomic parameters like plant growth indicators, weed infestation, grain yield and protein content were evaluated.

Early sowing of Estoril yield more grain than Cardiga (2443 and 2138 kg ha-1, respectively). Late sowing dates significantly reduced (59-62%) yields compared to early sowing. In contrast, Tango showed always the lowest grain yield in all sowing dates with a reduction of 91% and the highest weed infestation in the last date compared to first one. The highest crude protein yield was obtained with Cardiga (618 kg ha-1) and Estoril (588 kg ha-1), while the lowest in Tango (144 kg ha-1). The grain protein content decreased from first to last sowing date, with a reduction to half in Estoril and Tango and Cardiga showing 59% less, in the last sowing.

In conclusion, Cardiga following by Estoril showed more adaptability to the region and may constitute an alternative protein source for feed industry.

  • Open access
  • 73 Reads
Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum essential oil as inhibitors of Fusarium dry rot of potato
Published: 06 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

Fusarium dry rot on potato, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium solani is characterized by an internal light to dark brown or black and usually dry rot of the potato tubers. The disease progresses noticeably faster during the last half of the storage season. Biological control of dry rot is an intriguing concept, but currently nothing is available commercially. It was found that the essential oil of a number Lamiaceae species, including oregano, have strong biocidal properties. Significant antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum essential oil against different phytopatogens in in vitro experiments has been demonstrated. In the present study effect of oregano essential oil on potato tuber infected with Fusarium solani was evaluated. For this purpose potato slices with cut thickness 8-10 mm were inoculated with mycelium plugs of F. solani in the slice center. The oregano oil was tested in two approaches - contact and airimpact. In the first approach, the essential oil was applied as an aqueous solution with concentration range of 1-3 µg/mL on the potato tubers’ slices. In the second approach, the essential oil was placed in the Petri dishes with tubers’ slices in amounts from 5 to 50 µL without contact between them. A strong reduction in micellar growth on tuber tissue was observed at airimpact application of the essential oil in amounts upper 25 µL. The result showed that the Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum essential oil shows antifungal activity against Fusarium solani and has the potential for application in the storage rooms of potato tubers especially during the last half of the storage season.

Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Bulgarian National Science Fund, Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant DN 16/2, 11.12.2017).

  • Open access
  • 70 Reads
Transcriptomic profiling of fruits from pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), variety Padrón (mild hot), at two ripening states
Published: 06 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits are one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide. This produce has a great agro-economical relevance since it is extensively cultivated. These fruits are characterized by their high vitamin C and A, and mineral contents [1]. Capsicum annuum has many varieties, whose fruits differ in size, shape, colour, and pungency being this last characteristic due to the presence, in different degrees, of capsaicinoids, alkaloids which are exclusive of the genus Capsicum [2]. The present study focuses in the transcriptomic profiling of an autochthonous Spanish variety called “Padrón” (mild hot) [3]. Pepper “Padrón” plants were grown in farms under the local conditions and fruits at both green and red ripe stages were collected. The transcriptome profiling was carried out in both types of fruits by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in the NextSeq550 system (Illumina®) [4]. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the expression of more than half of the 17,499 identified transcripts was modulated during ripening. Thus, comparing to green fruits, 5,626 and 5,241 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in red fruits. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) have been analyzed to determine the functional categories which orchestrate the ripening process at the genetic level of this non-climacteric fruit.

[1] Corpas et al. 2018 J Exp Bot. 69, 3449-3463.

[2] Palma, et al., 2019 J. Exp. Bot. 2019, 70, 4405–4417.

[3] Palma et al., 2020, Antioxidants 9, 878.

[4] González-Gordo et al. 2019 J Exp Bot. 70, 4557-4570

[Supported by grants PID2019-103924GB-I00 and P18-FR-1359 from MICINN and PAIDI-Junta de Andalucía, Spain]

  • Open access
  • 102 Reads
Induction of Adventitious Root in Andrographis paniculata Cuttings Using Auxins: a Rapid Propagation Technique
Published: 06 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

Andrographis paniculata possess high demand for its overwhelming pharmacological properties; however, the current agricultural propagation of A. paniculata is insufficient to meet the commercial need. Developing a rapid and efficient propagation technique is crucial to meet its increasing demand. This study aims to assess auxins’ namely, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), effects on adventitious root development in young and old apical shoot cuttings of A. paniculata. This investigation found that adventitious root formation, root number per cutting, and root length were significantly affected by auxins in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). We found 3.0 mM IBA comparatively better for achieving rapid (6.33 days) adventitious root induction in young apical shoot cuttings with a maximum number of roots per cutting (40) and the highest root length (4.11 cm). At field conditions, there was no remarkable deleterious morphology or death observed during this study. Regeneration of A. paniculata plantlets using IBA within a short time suggests that this plant can be propagated on a mass scale by applying this technique. In our opinion, this method could be implemented for commercial production to meet its current demand. Further study for evaluating soaking duration on the adventitious rooting in A. paniculata would be worthy.

  • Open access
  • 59 Reads
The dynamic of Planosol chemical composition and CO2 respiration in differently tilled faba bean cultivation
Published: 08 May 2021 by MDPI in The 1st International Electronic Conference on Agronomy session Posters

Soil tillage intensity influences the chemical proportion of soil, the distribution of nutrients, the physical and mechanical soil properties as well as the gas flows from the soil. The impact of the reduced tillage on these indices in faba bean agrocenoses is still insufficient in global scale. For this reason, investigations were carried out at the Research Station of Vytautas Magnus University, Agriculture Academy (Lithuania) in 2016–2018. Investigations were performed on the basis of long-term tillage experiment (since 1988). The aim of these investigations was to establish the influence of the tillage systems on the chemical composition, the temperature, the moisture content and the soil CO2 respiration in faba bean crop limited by the semi-humid subarctic climate. Five tillage systems were tested: deep and shallow mouldboard ploughing, deep cultivation-chiselling, shallow cultivation-disking and no-tillage.

Results showed that in conditions of ploughless tillage systems the volume of pre-crop residues on the top-soil before the spring tillage was 5 to 15 times higher than in ploughed plots. In addition, it was largely influenced by the amount of available nutrients in the soil, soil temperature and moisture content. The highest concentration of chemical elements was found in no-tilled plots. During single vegetation, the faba beans enriched soil with potassium and nitrogen. The CO2 e-flux and the concentration above the ground in faba bean cultivation were generally not significantly affected by different tillage systems. These indicators were more dependent on the meteorological conditions, such as temperature and rainfall (r = 0.792 and 0.841). To summarize, long-term ploughless tillage systems and no-tillage initiated increase in the amount of available nutrients in soil. Faba bean crop largely increased proportion of potassium and total nitrogen as well as stabilized soil the CO2 respiration during single vegetative period. Agricultural faba bean production method - interface between agriculture and the environment, integrate scientific analyses derived from different perspectives of agroecosystem sustainability, agricultural systems effect on the environment, including soil, air quality, and are put in as wide an international or comparative context as possible.

  • Open access
  • 66 Reads
Title: Effect of Rhizobium inoculation on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield in protected crops.

The research Effect of Rhizobium inoculation on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) yield in protected crops, was developed in a soft sialitic brown soil without carbonates, in a protected cultivation house "Campo Antena", belonging to the Integral Agropecuaria Company Santiago Cuba, from November 2018 to April 2019. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different strains of Rhizobium on the yield of the Agean hybrid tomato variety. Direct inoculation of microorganisms was used at the time of sowing and transplantation, in a proportion of 10% with respect to the volume of the root ball. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four treatments and each one with four replications, an uninoculated control and three levels of the inoculation factor with the strains of Rhizobium, Rhizobium etli CE 3, Rhizobium leguminosarum SCR; Rhizobium leguminosarum Semia- 4088. The sampling was carried out in a zig zag throughout the field and the following variables were evaluated: dry mass by plant organs, foliar NPK, growth indicators, height and thickness of the plants, productive indicators, height, thickness and weight of the fruits, crop yield and economic valuation. The best results were obtained with the strain Rhizobium etli CE 3 (T2). The data were processed in the ANOVA statistical package, through a simple analysis of variance, applying Duncan's multiple comparison test of means for p≤5. The results obtained showed a positive effect regarding the variables evaluated in the plants inoculated with the Rhizobium strains with respect to the control without inoculation.