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  • Open access
  • 118 Reads
Phytochemical properties of (Fabaceae) distinct flower morphometric Clitoria ternatea L. Plants Available in Sri Lanka
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Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) is a twining herbal plant belonging to family Fabaceae. The C. ternatea has potential medicinal values, therefore, traditionally, used in Ayurvedic medicine to cure stress, infertility, gonorrhoea, and as a food colouring agent. The modern science reported a variety of phytochemicals present in C. ternatea, and its application in agriculture and medicine. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the variations in agronomic features and phytochemical contents in different morphotypes (blue single petal, blue multi-petal, white single-petal, white multi-petal, and purple single-petal) of Clitoria ternatea plants available in Sri Lanka. Morphological characters of flowers, leaves and roots were carried out. Preliminary phytochemical analysis for phenols, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, steroids and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) fingerprint analysis were conducted according to the previously published methods. Total phenol content, total phenol content and total antioxidant capacity were conducted using a spectrophotometer. Data were analysed using SAS 9.4 statistical packages and DMRT was performed to know the best treatment combination at P-value of 0.05. The results showed that all five types of plants were exhibited the presence of all major phytochemicals, but flavonoids were significantly higher in flowers of blue multi-petal and purple single-petal plants. Total phenolic content was significantly higher in flower (53.62 mg GAE/g), leaves (73.32 mg GAE/g), and roots (52.67 mg GAE/g) of purple single-petal and blue colour multi-petal plants, respectively. Total flavonoid content was significantly higher in flower (34.01 mg QE/g), leaves (40.02 mg QE/g), and roots (18.40 mg QE/g) of blue multi-petal plant type. Similarly, total antioxidant capacity tested by 1-diphenyle-2-picryle-hydrazil radical scavenging assay (DPPH assay) exhibited significantly higher in flower (2.93 mg TE/g), leave (3.77 mg TE/g), and root (3.40 mg TE/g) of white colour multi-petal, blue colour single petals and blue colure multi-petals, respectively at P <0.05. This study revealed that tested phytochemical contents vary according to the different flower colours of C. ternatea. Therefore, it is suggested to cultivate varieties/ morphotypes with a higher content of phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity for commercial purposes.

  • Open access
  • 59 Reads
Assessment of Yield Loss in Green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) cultivation and estimation of Weed-Free Period for Eco-friendly weed management

Fabaceae member green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) is one of the most economically important grain legumes of traditional farming systems of Sri Lanka because of its cheap sources of protein, animal feed, and in sustaining soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Weeds are one of the major problems in mung bean cultivation, reduce the yield through competition, interference with harvest and harbouring pest and diseases. Controlling of weeds by applying herbicides definitely would cause unexpected damage to human health and abundant biodiversity of Sri Lanka. Therefore, an investigation was planned to evaluate the yield loss due to weeds and to determine the optimum weed free period to minimize the yield losses. Three categories of trial plots were established. Plot one was maintained to determine the effect of different weed categories on the yield of the mung bean, in second category weeds were continuously hand weeded and kept weed free, and in third, weeds were allowed to compete with mung bean until 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 weeks after cultivation. All the treatments were conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. The data collected on types of weed, category of weeds, number of pods, pod weight at 3 - 6 weeks after planting (WAP) were analysed using SAS 9.4 statistical packages and DMRT was performed to know the best treatment combination at P value of 0.05. The results showed that average yield loss due to total weed populations were 54.77%. Yield loss due to grasses alone were 46.56% and significant, in comparison to broad leaves (16.49 %) and sedges (18.01%) at P <0.05, respectively. The data of plant stand count at 3-4 WAP were not showed significant difference among treatments. But biomass weight of 50 plants, number of pods in 50 plants and grain weight of 10 plants were found to be significant after 3-4 WAP in weed free conditions at P <0.05%. In the weed free in the whole season obtained higher plot yield was 1241.6g and this was significant when weed was competing after 4 weeks of planting (1083.3g). According to the results of the present study, it can be concluded that the critical weed free period until 3 to 4 WAP. Maintaining of weed free period of 3-4 weeks is recommended to minimize the yield loss in the green gram.

  • Open access
  • 63 Reads
Eco-friendly pest management of the pine processionary moth using plant essential oils

The pine processionary moth (PPM) is a dangerous parasitic insect pest of several pine species in Central Asia, Southern Europe and North Africa. Thaumetopoea pityocampa and T. wilkinsoni cause defoliation and promote pine decline, enabling attacks from other opportunistic pests. The PPM nests in pine branches in the winter and exits in early spring, forming long nose-to-tail column trails (processions) to search for pupating sites. Larvae produce and release urticating hairs that cause strong allergic reactions to warm blooded animals, making them dangerous to human and animal contact. In recent years, their habitat has expanded due to alterations in climate conditions, which has caused considerable concern in several countries’ national health authorities. Although pest management practices have been implemented, such as the eradication of nests and application of chemical insecticides, PPM continues to spread. Additionally, commercial insecticides can damage affected pines and/or beneficial insect species, induce PPM resistance and be harmful to human health. Essential oils (EOs) have been screened as agents of environmentally safer pest management practices. The present review analyses the existing body of work on the biological activity against the PPM and highlights the most successful EOs. A total of nine publications were identified reporting on the biological activity of 38 EOs extracted from 31 plant species, against the PPM. The EOs extracted from Achillea arabica, Citrus aurantium, Lavandula angustifolia, Origanum onites and Thymus vulgaris were reported to display the lowest half maximal lethal concentrations (LC50). Complete mortalities were obtained for EOs extracted from A. gypsicola, O. acutidens, O. onites, O. rotundifolium, Satureja hortensis, S. spicigera and Tanacetum polycephalum. The EOs extracted from Laurus nobilis, Pinus brutia and T. vulgaris reached complete PPM mortality in the shortest amount of time, at low concentrations. The use of EOs is a potentially eco-friendly alternative for successful PPM pest management, however more extensive studies must be performed to pinpoint highly active and easily accessible EOs.

  • Open access
  • 62 Reads
Root-knot nematode management using chitin rich fish industry by-product in organic brinjal cultivation

Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita is a major silent enemy in organic brinjal cultivation. Root-knot nematodes are sedentary vascular endoparasites that feed on plant roots and form galls that interfere with the uptake of water and nutrients in brinjal. This led to stunted plant growth and economical damages up to 80% on it. Effective management of root-knot nematode by using synthetic nematicide is detrimental to non-target organisms and the environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to explore the nematicidal effect of chitin amendments viz. shrimp and crab exoskeleton powder against M. incognita. Aqueous industry waste of shrimp and crab exoskeleton were selected and cleaned. Sun-dried exoskeletons were ground into fine powder by mortar and pestle separately. Five grams of each exoskeleton powder were mixed with potting media and allowed to decompose for one week. Two weeks old brinjal plants were planted and inoculated with 5 mature females per pot. Experiments were carried out under Complete Randomized Design. Root-knot index scale as 0-5, plant shoot and root fresh, as well as dry weight, were taken. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.1 software and DMRT was performed to find out the best treatment combination among the treatment at P >0.05. The findings revealed that all the chitin amendments treated plants exhibited a significant reduction in the extent of galls (p <0.05) which indicates chitin amendments have the ability to suppress the infestation of M. incognita. The knot-index was 2 and significant in comparison to untreated control (root-knot index 5) in crab exoskeleton powder treated plant. The growth rate of brinjal was significant in crab and shrimp exoskeleton powder treated plants (P <0.05). Maximum dry shoot weight was achieved in crab exoskeleton powder amended brinjal (4.46±0.35g) followed by shrimp exoskeleton powder (2.66±0.31g) over untreated control (1.39±0.48g). Crab exoskeleton powder treated plant dry root weight (0.02±0.01g) suppressed than shrimp exoskeleton powder (0.05±0.01g) and control (0.14±0.05g) treatment. Based on the findings, it could be confirmed that crab and shrimp exoskeleton powder amendment effectively controlled M.incognita. This finding suggests that the application of chitin is a compatible tactic of organic brinjal production.

  • Open access
  • 38 Reads
Canned tomato quality and stability preservation a comparative study
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Introduction: Algerian transforming industry uses local tomato varieties cultivated and transformed in short circuits, and as the Algerian food market is booming and opens up to international trade, industrials have a great interest in the quality of local products and want to raise it to the standards of import products.

Material and Methods: To achieve this study, a presentation of local used variety and its agronomical proprieties in addition to accelerated aging of a large consumer product: canned dual concentrate of tomato was conducted on two local and imported brands, to check its stability over time and therefore the validity of the date of consumption but also its hygienic quality in order to verify the effectiveness of the pasteurization process.

Results: Results reported that no deformation of the packaging was noticed, a preservation of organoleptic characteristics (odor, color, appearance and texture of the product), a difference in pH (<0.5) pH unit compared to control, dry extract for both brands show superior values compared to those reported on the package. For the stability variation of flora is quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed), in addition to pathogenic germs (Clostridium Sulfito-reducers, Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms and Salmonella) and the presence of total mesophilic aerobic flora (FTAM).

Conclusion: This study exhibit Algerian raw material and market product as a competitive ones in regards of quality and safety.

  • Open access
  • 94 Reads

Introduction: In the framework of valorization of introduced and cultivated spices on Algerian soil, Piperin main constituent of black pepper is chemically and biologically studied, as it improves bioavailability of several synthetic and natural drugs such as resveratrol and Curcumin thanks to its diffusion mechanism and a high permeability coefficient, in fact it was reported that curcumin- Piperin nanoparticals were used to increase Curcumin bioavailability in cancers treatment.

Material and methods: In the present work an efficient Soxhlet extraction of Piperin with several solvents namely: ethanol, chloroform, dichloromethane, acetate ethyl, acetone; and time depending is reported in order to optimize extraction conditions and maximize extraction yields, besides a purification and structural characterization of obtained biocompounds was conducted using several analytical and spectroscopic methods as: MP, CCM, UV, FT-IR.

Results: Optimized Sohxlet extraction exhibits ethanol in 2h as the best solvent and time extraction conditions, and LC chromatography isolation in addition to spectroscopic analysis lead to identify target pure piperin.

Conclusion: The scope of this study is to use the obtained biobased Piperin in further applications like hemi synthesis or simply encapsulated and used as nutraceutical adjuvant to optimize efficiency of other biomoleculs.

  • Open access
  • 43 Reads
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Introduction: The introduction of new species in Algerian biodiversity is a crucial task in our environmental and economical politic, thus some spices of great interest as curcuma, saffron...are introduced by young start up as Algerian soil is compatible with its culture and in the framework of enhancement of such spices, the safe recovery of Curcumin in a keto-enol tautomeric form, a sensitive and versatile pro-oxidant and antioxidant propriety rarely reported, which improve its solubility and promote the effectiveness of Curcumin as natural anticancer agent, is reported.

Material and methods: a non-thermal and conventional solid-liquid extraction by cold maceration with several solvents' systems and time depending is used, furthermore an optimization using Response Surface Method (RSM) is conducted, then obtained crud is separated using LC chromatography using ethyl acetate/hexane graduant, pure compounds were identified by TLC, MP, UV, IR, and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

Results: experimental and optimized results reveled the best solvent and time: Acetone +pumice stone shaking/6h, for extracting maximum yield of 7,52% and 7,6% respectively. Besides, obtained Curcuminoids were selectively separated from crud using as supplementary treatment oleoresins solubility in Ether Petroleum propriety, pure Curcumin in tautomeric form was identified, and an improved total yield of purified Curcumin (2,53%) is obtained.

Conclusion: This economic and easy process improved Curcuminoids and Curcumin recovery, preservation and efficiency for further industrial applications: building bloc in drug design as anticarcinogen agent, derma-cosmetics, functional foods, nutraceutics, hemysynthesis, and natural dyes which make great profits of introduction of this spicy in Algerian soil.

  • Open access
  • 39 Reads
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Introduction: The present study contributes to the promotion of a tree widely cultivated in the Mediterranean area, but not enough in our country Algeria; the carob tree "Ceratonia siliqua L."; by a mini bibliographic review which lists the agronomical, chemical, nutritional, biochemical, biological, and biotechnological properties of carob and its by-products.

Material and methods: A mini bibliographic review which lists environmental benefits, in addition to chemical, nutritional, biochemical, biological, and biotechnological properties of carob and its by-products expressed by the evaluation of its biological activities: antioxidant, anticancer, anti-hyper-lipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-reflux, anti- diarrheal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer and enzymatic, noted in the literature for few years using a survey on several databases MDPI, Pubmed, Google scholar, Elsevier...

Results: the survey highlights environmental benefits on soil and biodiversity besides, the presence of the main primary and secondary metabolites: polyphenols, fibers and sugars; give these products very interesting properties and benefits for human health by making it dietetic product and a raw material of choice in food, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, in this perspective a Ceratonia siliqua L. fruit aqueous extract based vegetal milk was developed in our laboratory as a functional food for chronicle diseases related to digestive disorder: diabetes, lactose and gluten intolerance.

Conclusion: This mini revue, contributes to the revive of a forgotten and neglected tree in our country by the enhancement of its crucial role in the preservation of soil, biodiversity, environment, human health and security, and consequently attract local authorities on the importance of its culture.

  • Open access
  • 44 Reads

Introduction: In the framework of enhancing a wild and invasive Mediterranean plant which aerial parts are known for its traditional uses as natural insecticide, fire barrier, veterinary and human medicinal plant, In this perspective aerial and roots parts were investigated chemically and microbiologically investigated as the microbial world has caught immense attention in recent years for both humans and plants, it is recognized that microbes hold an enormous potential to increase host health.

Material and Methods: To achieve our hypothesis, quantification of the main secondary metabolites; total polyphenols and flavonoids, in addition to in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities tested by discs diffusion method on agar medium, were carried out; the effectiveness of tested extracts has been demonstrated against five pathogen bacterial and fungal referential strains, then compared.

Results: Obtained results exhibit aerial part as better phenols sources, whereas roots extract showed better in vitro antimicrobial activity, which confirms that microbial resistance potential of roots is not attributed or correlated to phenols content

Conclusion: The present study open large perspectives to encourage intelligent culture and exploitation of such invasive plants and its bioactive compounds assessment, roots micro biome and antimicrobial mechanism, in order to develop low cost and safe biosanitary products .

  • Open access
  • 24 Reads
Biological assessment of a Meditteranean invasive weed flora for a better ecological farming management

In the framework of enhancing the biological potential of wild medicinal
plants of the Mediterranean flora, the present work investigates the
phytochemical screening of different extracts of various plant parts of
a wild medicinal plant Inula viscosa from Asteraceae botanical family
including roots, leaves, flowers, and aerial parts. This work also
highlights the quantification of the key secondary metabolites, total
polyphenols and flavonoids, present and its correlation with in vitro
antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Biological assays have shown
encouraging results for the antioxidant activities, with specific
impacts upon reducing power (FRAP test), hydrogen peroxide formation and
scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. The extract of the plant inflorescence
is a promising source of phenols and potent antioxidants with the
ability to reduce the generation of hydroxyl free radical chains,
typically produced as a result of oxidative stress.
In addition, antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated using
the disc diffusion assay on an agar medium. The efficacy of the extracts
evaluated has been demonstrated against five pathogenic bacterial and
fungal reference strains. Obtained results suggested that aerial parts
are a better source of plant phenols, whereas roots extracts showed
higher in vitro antimicrobial activity. Results also exhibit correlation
between metabolite abundance and activity and opportunity for broader
application of bioactive compound screening and assessment towards the
development of commercial products for organic farming. Invasive plants
may also prove useful as an unexplored source of bioactive natural
products useful for sustainable crop production systems.