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  • 60 Reads
Assessment of tocotrienols intake in adults; a pilot study

Introduction: Vitamin E, mainly α- and γ-tocopherol, is known for its antioxidant potential and plays an important role in reducing oxidative stress levels. Research also indicates a more effective antioxidant effect of tocotrienols compared to tocopherols.

Aim: Development of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for evaluation of tocotrienols intake and comparison with data obtained from a 24-hour dietary record in a group of adults.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional online survey to collect data using the FFQ method and a single 24-hour dietary record. This survey was open to all Poland residents aged 18 -65 years. The final data set included data from 202 participants. Data on age, sex, education level, place of residence, physical activity, as well as height and body mass weight were collected. FFQ includes 15 food categories (e.g. vegetable, fruit, oils, nuts and seeds, fish, eggs, drinks, snacks). Data from the USDA database were used to calculate the content of tocotrienol isoforms.

Results: The study involved 73% of women and 27% of men. Most of the respondents were aged 18-25 (77% of the total) and lived in cities with more than 100,000. The most of the respondents described their physical activity as moderate or high. Over 60% of the respondents had a normal weight. The mean consumption of tocotrienols for all subjects was: 2.165 ± 2,157 mg/day according to the data for the 24-hour dietary record method and 2.236 ± 2,160 mg/day for the FFQ questionnaire. It was found that the tocotrienols in the diet of the respondents met 25% of the Adequate Intake value for vitamin E (as milligrams equivalent of α-tocopherol). Among all forms of tocotrienols, the highest content was β-tocotrienol, and the lowest was δ-tocotrienol. The main dietary sources of tocotrienols were whole grain pasta and bread, brown rice, and carrot juices. Significantly lower intake of α- and δ-tocotrienol and the sum of total tocotrienols were found in women than in men, based on the data obtained from the 24-hour dietary records. The results of the content of tocotrienols obtained by both methods were consistent. Our results are similar to those obtained in the Japanese population, where the mean consumption of tocotrienols was 1.9-2.1 mg / day.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, there is a lack of research results on the share of tocotrienols in the diet, most studies include vitamin E or α-tocopherol. Taking into account the role of tocotrienols as bioactive compounds, it is important to conduct further research to develop a tool to assess their dietary content. Due to the low proportion of tocotrienols in the diet, it seems beneficial to popularize knowledge about their impact on health and food sources.

  • Open access
  • 47 Reads
Title of the article: Effect of short-term Vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure, arterial health, and stress hormones in healthy volunteers

Background: Despite suggested epidemiological findings and plausible mechanisms, data linking vitamin D supplementation with improvement in cardiovascular risk is limited. Also, little is known about the effect of vitamin D on CVD health of young healthy people. Objectives: To investigate effect of short-term supplementation with vitamin D3, considered to possess wide range of functions, on blood pressure (BP), Arterial compliance, body mass index (BMI) and salivary stress hormones levels in young healthy adults. Methods: Healthy, normotensive participants (n=20) were asked to consume 20µg/day of vitamin D3 for two weeks, and other volunteers received a placebo. BP, PWV, BMI and salivary cortisol level were assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks’ time. Vitamin D and total energy intakes were also evaluated. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean systolic BP by 5.3 ±6.46 mmHg (p=0.035), diastolic BP by 3.4±4.46 mmHg (p=0.002) and pulse wave velocity by 0.475±0.31m/s (p=0.007) with a negative correlation with vitamin D intake (r=−0.43). There was no significant effect on salivary cortisol (p=0.554), but salivary and urine cortisol/cortisone ratio was reduced from 0.952±0.54 to 0.784±0.68, p=0.028, and 1.71±0.75 to 1.22±0.53, p=0.015 respectively. Conclusions: Vitamin D3 intake decreases both diastolic and systolic BP and improves arterial compliance with reduction of urine and salivary cortisol/cortisone ratios indicating an inhibition of 11βHSD type 1 enzyme activity. The results suggest that vitamin D3 could have the potential to reduce the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in young healthy adults and therefore support body functions in the event of Covid-19 infection. Further research is warranted to test the reproducibility of data.

  • Open access
  • 24 Reads
The influence of energy-restricted anti-inflammatory diet on innate immune response in obese patients

The current obesity pandemic and related health complications severely impair the quality of life and significantly increase the burden of health care costs. Obesity causes chronic low-grade inflammation, which may cause chronic metabolic disease and complications, and may be accompanied by the activation of the immune system. Activation of the immune system may have a key role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders related to obesity. Adipose tissue disorders cause changes in adipose tissue distribution and function, with significant effects on cytokines, chemokines, hormone expression, and the composition of immune cell populations present in adipose tissue. Diet can influence immune system functioning and inflammatory response modulation. This study aimed to analyze the association between diet inflammatory potential, inflammation, and the innate immune response of obese people. In six months, 81 obese patients were monitored during energy-restricted anti-inflammatory diet nutritional intervention (intervention group; IG) and during energy-restricted Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka standard nutrition education protocol (control group; CG). The inflammatory potential of the participant’s diet was assessed with the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®). Both studied groups statistically significantly reduced markers of inflammation, hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α. The innate immunity (proportion of NK, NKT cells, and Tregs) was significantly decreased in the intervention group. Intervention with an anti-inflammatory diet showed the greatest reduction of these parameters in participants with the highest obesity degree. The use of anti-inflammatory dietary components, besides dietary energy restriction, has a significant impact on the improved immune status of obese people.

  • Open access
  • 84 Reads
Could bio-fortification of vegetables with iodine represent a tool to boost the immune system? A pilot study on human health

Nutrition is a major contributing factor for immunocompetence. Biofortification is a feasible strategy from the environmental and to the economical point of view. It is considering the perfect strategy to combat human mineral malnourishment. Biofortified foods can be efficiently assimilated by humans. However, relevant information on the effect of the implemented diet with biofortified leafy vegetables on haematological and chemical parameters are sparse. Vegetables are particularly rich sources of micronutrients and phytochemicals such as polyphenols and vitamins. Lettuce is considered to be a frequently consumed salad vegetable that is rich in phytonutrients. The concentration of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in lettuce may depend on variation and species, but they may vary within the same species. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effects of biofortified lettuce with iodine on haematological parameters and in general on whole body homeostasis and specifically on iodine, glucose, lipid, hepatic, iron metabolism. A cohort of ten people was supplemented with curly endive leaf biofortified for 12 days . Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T0) and after 12 days (T2) of supplementation with curly endive leaf and were analyzed for hematochemical parameters. The results showed that curly endive biofortification improved the whole body homeostasis in healthy people. The measurement, after the consumption for 12 days with iodine biofortified curly endive crops, revealed an increase in Iodine concentration in urine samples, increase in vitamin D, calcium and Potassium concentration in blood samples . The intake of bio-fortified lettuce did not alter the blood-chemical parameters and increased vitamin D suggesting that biofortification with iodine could have an immunomodulatory function.

  • Open access
  • 208 Reads
Non-canonical role of MK-7 in vascular smooth muscle cells - promoting energy and Inhibiting of oxidative stress

Background: The sequential processes that lead to pathological cardiovascular remodeling is unclear. From the multiple components that constitute the cardiovascular system, it is believed that vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) play a central role. SMCs have the ability to differentiate into a proliferative and migratory phenotype which supports vessel homeostasis. These synthetic SMCs display increased oxidative stress, secrete extracellular vesicles, and promote vascular calcification. SMC driven calcification is regulated by vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla protein (MGP). Since vitamin K promotes energy to bacteria, and vitamin K can scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidative stress, we reasoned that vitamin K can have non-canonical functions to decrease vascular calcification.

Aim: We investigated the potential of vitamin K to reduce oxidative stress and support ATP synthesis in SMCs.

Methods: Primary SMCs were cultured in M199 medium containing 20% FBS and 1% P/S. Warfarin (vitamin K antagonist; 10microM) and MK-7 (10microM) were added and ATP (luminescence), oxidative stress (DCFDA) and extracellular vesicles (EV: CD63-CD81-PE bead-assay) were measured.

Results: We show that SMCs take up MK-7 very efficiently. Interference with vitamin K metabolism, using warfarin resulted in increased intracellular oxidative stress (4 fold; p < 0.005) and EV release (2.5 fold; p<0.01). The addition of MK-7 counteracts intracellular oxidative stress, both under normal conditions (2 fold; p< 0.05) as well as under warfarin induced oxidative stress conditions (4 fold; p< 0.001). Additionally, chronic hypoxia induced by the HIF1a stabilizing cobalt chloride induced increased oxidative stress (2.5 fold; p<0.01), and MK-7 could counteract oxidative stress, indicative for improved mitochondrial activity. Finally, MK-7 increased ATP production as compared to vehicle (15%; p<0.05), even in the presence of warfarin.

Conclusion: Our experiments show that in primary human SMCs, MK-7 lowers oxidative stress and EV release and increases ATP production. This pathway points to a non-canonical role of MK-7 in the prevention of vascular calcification, unrelated to its canonical role as cofactor for the posttranslational modification of MGP.

  • Open access
  • 60 Reads
Bladder Cancer,and Fluorescence Cystoscopy

Oxidative stress is increased in bladder cancer patients. During this time, an unbalanced state of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant capacity occurs, which then causes oxidative damage, cell damage, and eventually death. Oxidative stress mediates the development of several diseases, including urothelial cancer.
Bladder cancer is one of the ten most common types of cancer diagnosed in the world. Modern fluorescence diagnostics of bladder neoplasms, combining fluorescence cystoscopy with other methods, shows great potential both in basic biomedical research and in clinical practice.
The aim of this research was to explain what fluorescence diagnostics is to present the techniques of modern fluorescence diagnostics of bladder tumors combining fluorescence cystoscopy with other methods. So far, several mechanistic pathways have been proposed and it has been experimentally proven that oxidative stress causes epigenetic changes. General DNA hypomethylation, promoter hypermethylation and ROS-induced altered histone modification have been clearly demonstrated.
Fluorescence cystoscopy is based on the evaluation of the bladder mucosa under ultraviolet light after prior intravesical administration of a photosensitizer (PS). Basically, light of a certain wavelength activates the PS, which then leads to a series of photochemical reactions that ideally allow tumor cells to be visualized without damaging normal tissue. PS: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and hexylaminolevulinate (HAL) are commonly used in fluorescence cystoscopy.
Blue Light Cystoscopy (BLC) is safe, well tested and effective in the treatment of bladder cancer and is well supported by high level evidence. The currently studied method, available and possible to implement, and at the same time more effective, is the combination of BLC with other methods of bladder cancer diagnosis. There is space and a need for further development and research in this area to minimize obstacles and introduce modern, improved diagnostic methods. In this paper, we present the current research reports on the generation and operation of ROS in bladder cancer.

  • Open access
  • 60 Reads
Effect of Silicon-enriched meat consumption on proximal colonic antioxidant status of late-stage type 2 diabetes mellitus rats

Colonic mucosa exhibits numerous functional alterations associated to type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Oxidative stress, a factor involved in T2DM pathogenesis and its complications, may contribute to some of the colonic alterations. Silicon (Si) is a trace element with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects. In this study, we examined if the intake of soluble G5 organic Si (2mg/kg b.w./day) as a functional ingredient might enhance the antioxidant status of proximal colonic mucosal barrier in late-stage T2DM rats. A control restructured meat matrix (RM) included in a high saturated-fat hypercholesterolemic diet (HSFHCD-RM) and combined with low-dose streptozotocin plus nicotinamide was used to induce T2DM. Sixteen diabetic rats were divided in two groups and received different experimental diets for 8 weeks: LD group fed a HSFHCD-RM, and LD-Si group fed a Si-enriched RM (HSFHCD-Si-RM). We evaluated Si effects on the immunolocalizations and activities of antioxidant enzymes in proximal colonic mucosa. Compared to LD-group mucosa, LD-Si group showed stronger immunoreactivities in Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SO1) (4.63±0.02 vs. 1.5±0.03; 626%, p=0.00001), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) (3.63±0.03 vs. 0.5±0.05; 208.6%, p=0.0001), catalase (CAT) (2.38±0.03 vs. 0.75±0.05, 131.51%, p=0.0001), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (3.25±0.03 vs. 0.5±0.05; 550.0%, p=0.0001) and glutathione reductase (GR) (3.50±0.05 vs. 2.56±0.03; 36.75%, p=0.001). Moreover, Si consumption led to higher total SOD (3.06±0.42 vs. 2.53±0.39; 20.94%, p=0.001), CAT (34.10±1.75 vs. 30.51±1.81; 11.65%, p=0.01) and GR (63.11±13.22 vs. 51.46±9.97; 22.60%, P=0.001) activities; and lower GPx activity (191.82±18.89 vs. 226.61±20.07, 22.63%, p=0.001). In summary, these results demonstrate the enhanced antioxidant status of the proximal colonic mucosa after Si intake in a late-stage T2DM model. Si effectively protected colonic mucosa against oxidative stress induced by T2DM. The incorporation of Si as a functional ingredient could be beneficial as a new nutritional tool to reverse colonic mucosa dysfunction associated to metabolic disorders such as T2DM.

  • Open access
  • 46 Reads
Body composition and dietary intake changes in postmenopausal spanish women before and after the the Covid-19 lockdown.

The current study examined changes in body composition and dietary intake of healthy spanish postmenopausal before and after the COVID-19-related lockdown. Sixty-six women participated in the study (58.7 ± 5.4 years). Participants had a full bioelectrical impedance study (BIA) before (between July-October 2019) and after (August-October 2020) the lockout, which occurred as a consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic in Spain. Dietary intake was determined before and after using a dietary questionnaire. Study subjects completed a 131-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ was previously validated and involves a 24-hour recall conducted over seven days. Using the FFQ, we assessed the dietary intake of protein, fat, carbohydrates and total energy from the Spanish Food Composition database. All participants also underwent anthropometric determinations before and after. No statistically significant differences were observed in the weight of the participants 66.8 ± 12 vs 67.2 ± 13.1 (p=0.243). Neither were significant changes visible in the percentage of fat mass 37.5 ± 6.8 vs 37.6 ± 6.9 (p= 0.567), lean mass in kg 25.8 ± 9.1 vs 26.1 ± 9.7 (p= 0.365) or in the lean mass of the participants in kg 41.0 ± 3.7 vs 41.2 ± 4.3. The assessment of dietary intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates before and after the confinement period also showed no significant changes: protein 96.4 ± 38.5 vs 99.9 ± 37.7 g/day (p=0.657); fat 87.3 ± 35.7 vs 88.6 ± 38.2 g/day (p=0.505) and carbohydrates 340.7 ± 367.1 g/day vs 252.8 ± 68.4 g/day (p=0.590). The method used to measure food intake determines the quality of the estimate of nutrient intake of populations; a good estimate includes the intake of energy and total fat and necessarily involves a detailed measurement of the intake of all foods, since several foods account for the dietary intake of these nutrients. A 7-day record that adequately indicates portion sizes, as well as the inclusion of sufficient recording days over a period long enough, allows for accurate and detailed recording of foods and ultimately to be able to estimate individual daily mean intakes of most food types without significant bias. However, we recognize that the use of a FFQ may be unreliable and inadequate for assessing absolute and relative nutrient intakes.

In conclusion, it does not appear that there have been changes in the body composition of the postmenopausal women studied or in their dietary habits, related to the possible complications derived from the lockdown due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

  • Open access
  • 80 Reads
Therapeutic Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant capacity of Flavonoid-Rich Seed Extract of Buchholzia coriacea Engler (Capparaceae)
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Inflammation is a complex process frequently associated with pain and fever, involving increased vascular permeability, increased protein denaturation and alteration of the membrane. The clinical symptoms such as fever, aches and pains associated with several diseases are directly or indirectly due to inflammatory disorders. Most biological proteins lose their biological activities or functions when denatured. This work studies the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant performance of flavonoid-rich extract of Buchholzia coriacea seed. The in vitro anti-inflammatory studies for the extract were done using protease inhibition activity, membrane stabilization and albumin denaturation inhibition assays, and antioxidant activities were performed by determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), and 2-2-diphnyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assays as well as total antioxidant capacity. The ethanol flavonoid-rich extract of B. coriacea seed was effective in inhibiting the denaturation of albumin in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory ability of the extract on protease increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased concentration. The flavonoid-rich extract of the seeds of B. coriacea like indomethacin significantly (p < 0.05) protected the human erythrocyte membrane against lyses induced by hypotonic solution when compared to the control. The plant extract at different concentrations inhibited significantly (p ˂ 0.05) oxidative stress caused by H2O2, DPPH, NO radicals when compared to the control. The flavonoid-rich extract was found to possess radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities as determined by albumin denaturation, protease inhibition, membrane stabilization, hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activities and total antioxidant capacity data. Further research on isolating, purifying and characterizing the particular class of flavonoids responsible for the aforementioned activities may be undertaken, and they may be incorporated into existing anti-inflammatory herbal compositions to improve their efficacy.

  • Open access
  • 23 Reads
Oily fish as a source of bioactive compounds in the diet

Current research has shown that oily fish, specifically pelagic species, blue shark (Prionace glauca), shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), in addition to being a source of essential nutrients of proteins (15 - 21%), Lipids (0.5 - 3.3%), carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, it constitutes a rich source of bioactive compounds, which promote the health of the fish consumer. Bioactive compounds are components naturally present in food and in relatively small amounts, which after enzymatic hydrolysis at the gastrointestinal level, influence cellular and physiological activities, obtaining a positive effect on consumer health after ingestion. These benefits are achieved through multifactorial physiological mechanisms that include antioxidant, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiviral or immunomodulatory activity, among others. The increase in diseases such as cancer, hypertension or diabetes have caused the population to prefer foods that, in addition to providing nutrients, provide functional benefits for health. In this sense, it has been shown that various nutrients present in oily fish, such as proteins, are a rich source of bioactive peptides, which demonstrate antihypertensive properties, showing a high inhibitory activity of the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), with IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL. In addition, the high contribution of these species in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (0.884 - 3.342 g/100 g Dw), vitamin D (7.2 - 15 μg/ 100g Dw), vitamin A (500 - 1000 Eq. Retinol/100 g Dw) and minerals such as selenium (48.1 - 82 μg/100 g Dw), which are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, may have a synergistic effect on the benefits of oily fish consumption. Therefore, in this work we systematically review the scientific evidence of the benefits of consuming bioactive compounds from oily fish and their effect on physiological risk factors, molecular pathways and bioactive metabolites