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  • Open access
  • 14 Reads
4-Ammoniumbutylstyrene Based-Nanoparticles for the Controlled Release of Fenretinide

Fenretinide (N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), is a synthetic derivative of retinoic acid, which proved high antitumor activity against a wide range of cancers. Thanks to its low toxicological profile, 4-HPR has been also used as chemo preventive agent in the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, 4-HPR is endowed with poor oral absorption due to its low solubility, and variable blood concentrations for a massive hepatic first pass effect. To overcome these drawbacks, we prepared nanoparticles (NPs) made of 4-Ammoniunbutylstyrene random copolymer (P5), highly soluble in water, with the aim to increase drug apparent solubility and thus enhancing its antitumor effects. The NPs were prepared by the anti-solvent co-precipitation technique, an easy and up-scalable way of obtaining the amorphization of the drug into the polymeric matrix. The encapsulation led to an increase in drug apparent solubility of 1134 folds with a drug loading of 37%. The NPs showed a faster and extended dissolution rate, a mean hydrodynamic diameter of 249 nm, and positive Zeta potential (+41.3 mV) confirming the suitability of the formulation also for the intravenous administration. The loaded were also characterized by a chemometric-assisted Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and assayed for their antitumor activity on neuroblastoma cell lines. 4-HPR-P5 NPs proved an anti-proliferative activity with IC50 values of 1.25 and 1.93 µM on IMR-32 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, respectively. Our data suggested that the 4-HPR-P5 formulation could represent a valid approach to increase drug apparent aqueous solubility and thus its therapeutic efficacy.

  • Open access
  • 29 Reads
Nanotechnology-Based Strategies for Hair Follicle Regeneration in Androgenetic Alopecia

A frequent type of hair loss that affects both men and women, androgenetic alopecia is indicated by the gradual miniaturization of hair follicles, which results in thinner and shorter hair growth cycles. Despite the availability of various treatment options, a definitive cure for androgenetic alopecia is yet to be found. Nanotechnology has recently become recognized as a promising strategy for treating androgenetic alopecia. This review comprehensively analyzes the present situation and potential nanotechnology applications in managing androgenetic alopecia. The present study highlights various nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, liposomes, and dendrimers, and their potential for the delivery of drugs and growth factors to hair follicles. The possibility of nanomaterials in enhancing the bioavailability and efficacy of existing treatments for androgenetic alopecia, such as minoxidil and finasteride. Additionally, the study discusses the potential of nanotechnology in developing new therapeutic strategies, including gene therapy and tissue engineering approaches for hair follicle regeneration. Furthermore, the challenges associated with the clinical translation of a nanotechnology-based approach to androgenetic alopecia include the need for targeted delivery systems and long-term safety studies. In conclusion, nanotechnology holds great promise for developing effective and safe treatments for androgenetic alopecia. The targeted delivery and improved efficacy of existing drugs and the development of new therapeutic approaches using nanotechnology offer new possibilities for treating androgenetic alopecia.

  • Open access
  • 13 Reads
Formation of nanostructured functional elements in TiO2-PVTMS-Ag-La nanocomposites for photocatalytic application

The nanoparticles are composed of tens or hundreds of atoms or molecules with different sizes and morphologies (amorphous, crystalline, spherical, needle-shaped, etc.). Most of commercially used nanoparticles are in the form of dry powder or liquid. Of course, nanoparticles combined in an organic or aqueous solution in the form of a suspension or paste are also of interest. Photocatalysts are the group of catalysts that act when exposed to light. Photocatalysts are usually solid semiconductor oxides in which the absorption of photons creates electron-hole pairs that can react with molecules on the surface to produce active radicals. Nowadays, the nanocomposites have attracted the attention of many researchers due to their special properties, their many technological applications, unique absorption, photocatalysis and antimicrobial properties, and their use in the elimination of bacteria. In this research, TiO2-PVTMS-Ag-La nanocomposites with different stoichiometric proportions were synthesised as a disrupting agent and photocatalyst using the sol-gel method. The samples were calcined at a temperature of 700 °C and then characterizations consisting of XRD was performed. The degradation and photocatalytic effect of TiO2-PVTMS-Ag-La nanocomposites on methylene blue dye were studied. As a result, the nanocomposites TiO2 (80 wt.%)-PVTMS (7 wt.%)-Ag (2 wt.%)-La (11 wt.%) showed degradation properties.

  • Open access
  • 49 Reads

Does Geometry Matter? Carbon Nanotube-Based Films, Ribbons and Fibers as a Platform for Neuronal Cells Culturing

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) became a fascinating nanomaterial for biomedical field application where non-soluble forms also called “assemblies” have found the great eventual use for electrical scaffolds manufacturing and electrodes fabrication. Electrically conductive materials with biocompatible properties are in the great importance for neuronal tissue engineering, registration of evoked potentials and electrical signals transmission. Despite the numerous studies, there is still a big gap in realizing of these scaffolds’ geometry impact on cells physiology. Thus, in our work we address the issue and study regular films made of CNTs through chemical vapor deposition, flat ribbons and twisted 3D shaped fibers for their effects on cells viability. After 1 and 7 days of incubation with films, by application of standard Alamar Blue test we revealed that Neuro2A cells have the same number of alive cells in the control (95±7%) and in the experimental group (100±10%). LDH-assay allowed us to compare amounts of dead cells; we found that number of dead cells is comparable for the control group (27±5%) and for the experimental cells (18±5%). We correlated the rigidity of materials surface, cells attachment and changes in morphology after 1 day of incubation. Cells were actively adhered at the scaffolds made of fibers and films. Comparing with them, ribbons showed much worse adhesion of cells because of the inhomogeneous height revealed by profilometry, so the cells roll off to the lateral sides of ribbons. One of the most essential results is the observation of Neuro2A cells directly attached to a fiber characterizing by a 3D cylindrical shape. Summing up, the present work demonstrates the absolute safety of non-soluble forms of CNTs for in vitro models and shows cells adhesion on platforms based on CNT assemblies with different geometries that opens new perspectives of the material application in biomedicine.

  • Open access
  • 30 Reads
Current Density-Voltage (J-V) Characterization of Monolithic Nanolaminate Capacitors

In a world of miniaturized electronics, there is a rapidly increasing need for reliable, efficient, and compact energy storage systems with low-loss dielectrics. To address this need, this work proposes the development of compact, micro-capacitive energy storage devices that are compatible with IC processing such that they can be integrated monolithically on-chip. There are two main approaches for the fabricated integrated on-chip micro-supercapacitor energy storage devices: interdigitated electrode (IDE) devices and parallel plate electrode (PPE) devices. As part of the design of such systems, this work aims to explore the current density-voltage (J-V) behavior in homogeneous and heterogeneous IDE and PPE devices and to investigate whether the anomalies between the interfaces of the dielectric materials in such structures deleteriously affects their leakage current. Understanding the J-V characteristics in these structures is crucial in the design of a solid-state capacitor energy storage module with high energy densities, low-loss dielectrics, improved areal capacitance density, and a high number of charge/discharge cycles for portable power electronics. Specifically, this paper will explore and investigate nanolaminate, solid-state PPE and IDE capacitive energy storage “modules”, which can be fabricated using nanolithographic techniques. The dielectric layers in these structures will be composed of alternating nanolaminate layers of thin higher-k Al2O3, HfO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Si3N4 and lower-k SiO2. Recent findings have shown that capacitive energy storage devices made from a large number of these on-chip multilayer nanolaminate energy storage PPE (MNES-PPE) structures that utilize the directional interfacial anomalies of thin high-k/SiO2 nanolaminates could have the potential to overcome many of the limitations of current compact energy storage technologies. Preliminary projections indicate that these high-density nanolaminate capacitors with laminate thicknesses from 2-5 nm could produce devices with volumetric energy densities and areal capacitive densities that are much larger than conventional micro-supercapacitors (~20 J/cm3).

  • Open access
  • 37 Reads
Influence of Hole-Phonon Coupling on Thermodynamic and Magnetic Properties of Diluted Semiconductor: Ga1-xMnxAs in Quantum Dots.

Owing to the possible future importance of hole-based quantum structures, the studies on single/ multiple hole quantum dots have picked momentum in recent years e.g. Delaforce et. al. have recently explored experimentally probe the low temperature transport in single hole quantum dots. van-Riggelen et. al. have studied 2-D quantum dots array with each quantum dot having a single hole as charge career as possible means for quantum computation. This point is validated as the single hole state in a semiconductor QD is better suited for quantum information [3]. In this work the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of a two-holes parabolic quantum dot are studied in the presence of hole-hole and hole-phonon interactions in the range of temperature from 0 K to 50 K and in magnetic fields varying from -5 to 5 T. Calculations of energy levels of two-holes states have been performed with a resolution of the Schrödinger’s equation and all thermodynamic functions are derived by using the canonical ensemble. Our formalism’s numerical calculation is essentially applied to dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors Ga1-x MnxAs containing 3% Mn.

The founded results show that the magnetic an thermodynamic properties are influenced by the magnetic field, hole-phonon and hole-hole interactions, and the confinement. The analysis of magnetization and susceptibility justifies that the ferromagnetic transition temperature can be increased as a result of increasing of magnetic field which is in a good agreement with previous works.

  • Open access
  • 25 Reads
A short study of perovskite solar cells with incorporation of long persistent luminescence material.
Published: 17 May 2023 by MDPI in The 4th International Online Conference on Nanomaterials session Poster

In the concern of global climate change, issue related to energy crisis, technologies reliable on non-fossil renewable energy sources are in full demand. Solar energy appears to be one of the finest alternatives among all non-conventional energy resources because of its economic capability and environmental sustainability. Perovskite materials has great potential for application as active materials in third-generation solar cells due to their wide spectrum absorption, low excitation binding energy and long excitation diffusion length. In this work, room temperature mixed-cation perovskite material FAMAPbI3 for perovskite solar cells (PSC) is studied. To extend the performance of the PSC samples, we have integrated a layer of organic long persistent luminescence (LPL) material in the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were carried out to reveal the phase identification, morphology nature and emission spectra, respectively. Furthermore, we have proposed a new material composition of polymer electrolyte which could work as a hole-transport material. The luminescence material and its application in solar cells, and the after-glow effect are discussed. The optimized ratio of the LPL material would be used in the fabrication of laboratory scale PSC.

Acknowledgment: This work was partly supported by the AOARD grant (award no: FA2386-21-1-4106).

  • Open access
  • 50 Reads
Synthesis and characterization of cellulose nanomaterials from waste newspapers

Recycling of plant-based materials for various applications not only reduce the harm to environment but also present an excellent green source for nanomaterial synthesis. Being chiral and biodegradable makes cellulose which is an organic polymer, an economic and easy to access plant-derived green material. Cellulose can be synthesized into nanostructures for a vast array of high-demand applications like drug delivery, biomedicines, medical implants, skin tissue healing, waste water treatment, touch screen technology, electronic skin, human-machine interfaces, energy storage devices, clothes, packaging, and cosmetics. The daily newspapers that are delivered to our homes can be one of the best sources of cellulose for us. Our work in this study is concentrated on removing the nanocrystalline cellulose from the newspapers. To begin, we deinked the newspapers and then the deinked pulp is transformed into its nanostructures, or nanocrystalline cellulose, to achieve high aspect ratio on the one hand using chemicals like NaOH, thiourea, etc., and on the other side by a mechanical process. We used a variety of characterization techniques, including Scanning Electron Microscopy to study morphological properties, X-Ray Diffraction and Dynamic Light Scattering for dimensional, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for thermogravimetric analysis, and others, to confirm that the synthesized materials had achieved the intended outcomes. High aspect ratio enables us to create surfaces with a huge surface area with very little synthetic material. The final product, which was created by synthesis, is discovered to have features that are identical to those of nanocrystalline cellulose, which is available for purchase in the market for use in laboratory purposes. To make nanocomposites, this nanocrystalline cellulose can be combined with various organic and inorganic polymers which can be further used as a base material for energy storage devices. In this paper we will compare our materials at different time duration used in synthesis.

  • Open access
  • 13 Reads
Silica nanoparticles increased drought resistance in green peas (Pisum sativum L.)
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Published: 30 May 2023 by MDPI in The 4th International Online Conference on Nanomaterials session Poster

Legumes, especially peas, are sensitive to water shortages, which are becoming increasingly common because of climate change. Peas are beneficial for soil and crop rotation and as a source of protein in nutrition. Therefore, discovering new agrotechnical tools and maintaining plant resistance to environmental influences is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) on drought-stressed peas (Pisum sativum L., ‘Respect’) via different exposure routes: through foliar spraying and root watering. The research was conducted in a greenhouse. Ten green pea seeds (‘Respect’) were sown in 10 L vegetative pots and were thinned up to 7 plants per pot after germination. When the peas reached the 39 BBCH growth stage (had nine or more visibly extended internodes), they were foliar sprayed to full wetness (ca. 14±0.5 mL plant−1) or watered (100±1 mL per pot) with suspensions containing 12.5, 25, and 50 ppm of SiO2 NPs. Untreated NPs plants were watered or sprayed with distilled water. During the 10-day drought period, low substrate moisture (30%) was maintained for peas exposed to SiO2 NPs, and other plants (controls) were grown under regular substrate moisture (80%). At the end of the experiment, peas were harvested to assess the impact of SiO2 NPs and drought on plant growth indicators and enzymatic (SOD, GR, APX) and non-enzymatic (TPC, FRAP) antioxidants activity. The results showed that treatment at a concentration of 50 ppm SiO2 NPs strongly affected pea leaf area, shoot height, and fresh biomass when plants were grown in drought conditions. In addition, positive effects on the activity of enzymatic (APX, CAT, GR, SOD) and non-enzymatic (TPC, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP) antioxidants in the pea plant were found. The SiO2 NPs reduced hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation in drought-affected plant tissue. SiO2 NPs protected green peas from the adverse effects of drought stress and maintained pea yield.

  • Open access
  • 12 Reads
A Novel Eco friendly Control of Arboviruses Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) Using Trachyspermum ammi seed extract -Mediated Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs)
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In this study, acetone extract from Trachyspermum ammi was prepared and used as the reducing agent for the eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using silver nitrate solution. UV-VIS, FTIR, XRD and STEM were used to confirm the formation characterization of AgNPs. The measured average size of AgNPs was 10-25nm. The larvicidal activity of acetone extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus responsible for the diseases of public health importance. Larvae of Ae.aegypti and Ae. albopictus were kept in the different concentrations (50-250 ppm) of plant extract and green AgNPs to calculate the percentage mortality at time intervals of 6,12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48h. The nanoparticles proved excellent larvicidal agents for the both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (dengue vectors) with LC50 values of 76.28 ppm; 80.28 ppm for 2nd and 87.02 ppm; 89.02 ppm for 3rd instar larvae compared to the plant extract 121.44 ppm; 127.89 ppm for 2nd and 127.89 ppm;129.35 ppm for 3rd instar larvae respectively after 48 hours exposure time. Highest percentage mortality of T. ammi AgNPs against the 2nd instar larvae of both Ae. aegypti and Ae.albopictus was recorded as 100% ± 0.1342 at the concentration of 250 ppm after 36h exposure time, while for 3rd instar larvae, the highest mortality(100% ± 0.954) was achieved after the 48h. In case of T. ammi seed extract highest mortality was recorded as 100% ± 0.919; 90% ± 0.234 against 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Ae. aegypti respectively after 48h exposure time and at 250ppm concentration, while for Ae.albopictus these values were 93% ± 0.887; 92% ± 1.034 after the same time and concentration. Our results suggest the extract of T.ammi and synthesized T.ammi AgNPs as excellent controlling agents for vector mosquitoes instead of pollution causing existing chemical pesticides