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  • 50 Reads
Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow\'s Milk Protein Allergy
Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insure the right development and influence immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feeding may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow\'s milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin Ig-E mediated food allergy and non–IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow\'s milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow\'s milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow\'s milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (13-28 mg/mL), very close to human milk. In particular, donkey milk is rich in whey proteins; they represent 35-50% of the nitrogen fraction, while in cow\'s milk only 20%. A deep analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in human. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk is 7.50 mg/mL, very close to human milk (8.0 mg/mL). Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA .
  • Open access
  • 71 Reads
Characterization of the lipotropic potential of plant-based foods
Lipotropes are food components that limit excessive hepatic triglyceride contents or steatosis. Hepatic steatosis is often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and may lead to more serious pathologies such as steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, or cancer. Yet, whereas hepatic steatosis concerns several millions people worldwide, the lipotropic potential of foods has never been studied; and lipotrope-rich foods remain quite unknown. The objective of this work has been to characterize and quantify the lipotropic potential of plant-based foods from lipotrope contents found in literature and nutritional tables. Thus, 132 plant-based foods and 8 lipotropes (betaine, choline, myo-inositol, methionine, niacin, pantothenic acid, folates and magnesium) could have been selected. Main results showed that vegetables are the best source of lipotropes on a 100 kcal-basis and that plant-based foods are a more diversified source - but complementary - of lipotropes compared to animal-based products. We then expressed the lipotropic potential into a new index, the Lipotropic Capacity (LC) that integrates the sum of the 8 lipotropic densities relative to a reference food. Technological processes reduce plant-based foods lipotropic potential by around 20%: while refining is the most drastic treatment, fermentations have little effect, and may even tend to increase lipotrope densities. Then, by comparing lipotrope consumption via both French standard diet (INCA 2 survey) and Food guide pyramid, we evaluated that our consumption in betaine, choline and myo-inositol may be increased: this can be easily reached by choosing lipotrope-dense foods like beetroot, spinash or coffee. On a one euro-basis, grains products (i.e. cereals, and leguminous and oleaginous seeds) are the best compromise between a high LC and a cheap supply in lipotropes. However, it remains indispensable to carry out studies in humans to relate LC and prevalence of hepatic steatosis.
  • Open access
  • 77 Reads
QSAR model based in the TOPSMODE approach used to predict chromosomal aberrations in bioactive phenolic compounds
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The in silico characterization of bioactive substances which are constituents of functional foods or nutraceuticals is the methodology described in this communication. The aim of this work was to show the potential of the TOPSMODE approach as chemical-informatics method to study the structure/clastogenic activity (chromosomal aberrations) and identify structural alerts related to genotoxicity. The results of QSAR studies were analyzed for several classes of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, phenolic acids and coumarins) for which was required the use of software STATISTIC and MODESLAB and a mathematical model encoding topological information of a substructural level. It was observed that the criteria for maximum clastogenicity are the methoxy and hydroxyl polisubstitutions (methoxy > hydroxyl) and the polarity of the substituents. This was observed for all the analyzed subclasses. The confirmation of these results is based on the percentage of good classification for the used external databases, the recognition of physical chemical descriptors of polarity (μ1Pol y μ2Pol) and in the calculation of the fragments contribution. It can be conclude that QSAR methods, and in particular the used topographical approach, may constitute a predictive tool for the design and evaluation of bioactive components of functional foods or nutraceuticals.
  • Open access
  • 59 Reads
Common beans and their non-digestible fraction: antitumor activities- An overview
The US Department of Agriculture\'s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans, an important food staple in many traditional diets can improve diet quality. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils) consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are known as a rich reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, while the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans has demonstrated anti- proliferative and apoptosis induction on in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteinsexpression. This review investigates the health potential of beans on tumor inhibition, examining their bioactivity, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fraction, that modulate genes and proteins, helping to understand its chemopreventive role against the development of chronic diseases.
  • Open access
  • 65 Reads
Analysis of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Peanut Seed Testa
Peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) contain numerous phenolic compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. These secondary metabolites may be isolated as co-products from peanut skins or testae during peanut processing and have potential use in functional food or feed formulations. Peanut skins were extracted in ethanol and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify major phenolic compounds. Extracts were analyzed by LC-MS (Accela-MSQ,ThermoFisher Scientific,Waltham, Massachusetts, USA). Separations were performed using a PFP column in reverse phase. The MS detector was scanned from 50 – 500 m/z in negative mode (ESI). Additional analysis of extracts was performed by GC-TOF (Leco Corp., St. Joseph, Michigan, USA). Spectral data collected by both instruments were used to obtain a profile of the phenolic compounds that included catechin, epicatechin, and several anthocyanidins. These results are expected to promote the use of phenolics obtained from inexpensive agricultural sources.
  • Open access
  • 59 Reads
Microbial carotenoids as bioactive food ingredients
Nature is rich in colors (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc) and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria) are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, phenazines, quinones, bacteriochlorophylls and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The food industry was mainly using synthetic colors up to the nineties, 1995 being the beginning of the switch to natural colorants, conversion accelerated by the Southampton study of 2007 which linked some synthetic food colors with hyperactivity of childrens. The natural food coloring industry market is now growing at 10%-15% annually. Among food pigments, carotenoids are of special interest as they are bioactives with antioxidant, anticancer, vitamin, or hormone properties. Growing interest in healthy diets and an aging global population is anticipated to fuel growth in the global carotenoids market which is intended to reach USD 1.2 billion by 2015. More than 650 different carotenoids are produced by plants, algae, bacteria, and fungi. At present time, only a few can be obtained at a large scale and microbial fermentation is among the most promising tools to achieve the production of large amounts of new carotenoids. Examples presented in this review are b-carotene, lycopene, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, torulene, isorenieratene and dihydroxyisorenieratene… Applications are numerous in health supplements, animal feed, nutraceutics, food colorants. Last part concludes with some prospects for carotenoid production by genetically modified microorganisms, especially directed evolution and combinatorial biosynthesis.
  • Open access
  • 81 Reads
Effect of a-amylase pretreatment on protein extraction from deffatted roselle seed
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed, commonly discarded as waste, is known as a good source of protein. Roselle seed protein is mostly composed of albumin, globulin and glutelin, covering 82.31% of total nitrogen in roselle seed, and soluble in water, salt and dilute alkalizes solution, respectively. Roselle seed protein was reported to be highly soluble (90-95%) at pH 9. However, oligosaccharides and phytic acids may extensively bind to protein and hence could significantly interfere protein isolation. Based on other studies, α-amylase (E.C. can be used to release the bound protein into solution and it has higher effect than other carbohydrates on the extraction of protein. Thus, it is advantageous to isolate protein from defatted roselle seed by using water and salt solution at pH 9. Two-steps protein extraction using deionized water and salt solution at pH 9 resulted in 52.24% protein yield. This study found that the addition of α-amylase pretreatment (1 800 units/g DRSF for 6 h) resulted in 72.18% protein yield. Molecular weights of roselle protein, which has never been reported, range from slightly below 22 kDa to 95 kDa. Methionine is the main limiting amino acid. Roselle protein concentrate obtained in this study is rich in glutamic acid (28.78%), arginine (10.21%), aspartic acid (10.11%) and leucine (6.36%).
  • Open access
  • 44 Reads
Different dietary PUFA intervention affects fatty acid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef and related beef products
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The study investigated the dietary impact of ALA (α-linolenic acid) vs. LA (linoleic acid) on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef muscle tissue and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes by lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof [German Corned beef (GCB), tea sausage spread (TSS), scalded sausage]. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls (n=29) which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%), (n=15), or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12%) and linseed oil (3%), (n=14). The study revealed that upon an ALA vs. LA intervention the sum of saturated fatty acids in beef (longissimus muscle) decreased by approximately 25%, whereas the amounts of ALA (by 2.6 times), EPA (by 2.3 times) and Σn-3 LC-PUFA (by 1.7 times) were significantly elevated. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was significantly lower in beef of ALA (2.3±0.1) than LA (5.8±0.1) fed animals. Trace element (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) concentrations were not affected by the diet. Experimental diet significantly increased ß-carotene contents, and the g-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 FA (ALA, EPA, Σn-3 FA) from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. ALA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found be by 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from ALA than LA fed animals. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was significantly lower in GCB produced from ALA (4.0±0.4) than LA fed animals (5.9±0.4). The trace element contents were not affected by the diet; however g-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. Scalded sausage was the only beef product for which no significant effect of a dietary FA intervention of beef bulls was obtained. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products (Corned Beef, Tea sausage spread) unaffected by beef processing conditions.
  • Open access
  • 55 Reads
Differential aroma volatiles in non-climacteric near-isogenic lines of melon as biomarkers of differences of flesh firmness at harvest
Two non-climacteric near-isogenic lines (NILs) of melon (Cucumis melo L.), SC10-2 and SC7-1, containing introgressions of the Korean cultivar \'\'Shongwan Charmi\'\' accession PI161375 (SC) into the Spanish cultivar \'\'Piel de Sapo\'\' (PS) were studied. Data were analysed by different supervised and unsupervised multivariate statistical techniques in order to determine the most discriminant aroma volatiles analyzed by constant flow gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry that could be associated with differences in ripening and flesh firmness in non-climacteric melons. The NILs and the parental showed non-climacteric behaviour during ripening. SC10-2 was harvested at least 7 days later than the control. At harvest, only the NIL SC10-2 showed 65% higher flesh firmness than PS. Whole fruit hardness of SC7-1 was 34% lower than PS. The results obtained by the partial-least square discriminant analysis showed that the aroma better discriminated SC10-2 than SC7-1 from the control, with scarce differences between SC7-1 and PS. The aldehydes (Propanal, 2-methyl-) and the ketones (2-3 Pentanedione) were the most discriminating volatile groups among the NILs studied and PS. Higher levels of several aldehydes (Propanal, 2-methyl-, Benzaldehyde, 2,4-dimethyl-/Benzaldehyde, 3,4-dimethyl-, Butanal, 2-methyl-), not present in PS line, discriminated the NIL SC10-2 from the control PS. Also, SC10-2 displayed lack of some ketones (Acetophenone) and very low presence of alcohols (as for example, Cyclohexanol, 3,5-dimethyl-) compared with PS. The NIL SC7-1 was highlighted by higher relative content in alcohols (1-Octanol, 3-Ethyl-2-heptanol) and one acetate ester (Acetic acid, phenylmethyl ester) than PS and presence of ketones (2-3 Pentanedione, 2-Cyclopenten-1-one, 3,5,5-trimethyl-) that were absent in PS. The results are discussed in terms of the aroma biosynthesis pathways that could be affected by the introgressions.
  • Open access
  • 63 Reads
Non-destructive aroma production of a climacteric near-isogenic line of melon obtained by headspace sorptive bar extraction technology
A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL) of melon (Cucumis melo L.) SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar \'\'Shongwan Charmi\'\' accession PI 161375 (SC) into the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar \'\'Piel de Sapo\'\' (PS). The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 22oC in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE). Bars were composed by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and analysis were desorbed and aroma analysed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was constituted 42 aromatic compounds with predominance of esters, particularly acetate esters (1-butanol, 2-methyl-, acetate, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol, 3-methyl-propanoate, acetic acid 2-methylpropyl ester, acetic acid, hexyl ester, acetic acid, phenylmethylester). Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate, acetic acid, 1-metylpropyl ester or acetic acid, phenylmethylester) decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (butanethioic acid, S-methyl or S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate) increased gradually with ripening. Other compounds such as n-hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some declining from a relative maximum at harvest (propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, ethyl ester), or others showing an upsurge at the senescence phase (butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, ethyl ester).
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