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  • Open access
  • 129 Reads
Relationship between the fed substrates and the physical chemical parameters of an anaerobic biodigester in Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

At present the search for renewable energy sources and raw materials is the attention of many countries that seek to modify their energy and productive matrix. Anaerobic digestion of different substrates is one of the most studied processes. Not only with the aim of generating a renewable energy source but also by the use of waste generated in industry, agriculture and our homes. The operational parameters of this process directly influence the quality of the biogas and of the digestate that is produced. In addition to influencing the performance of the process. Amazon State University's (UEA) has a bioreactor that is fed mainly with animal manure so that the variability of the quality of the raw material can influence the quality of the products obtained. This work aims to relate the influence of the different substrates fed on the variability of the physical chemical parameters (pH, salinity, conductivity) that affect the digestion process.

  • Open access
  • 94 Reads
Solid Wastes Generation in Amazon State University's, Puyo, Ecuador
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Higher education institutions in developing countries increasingly focus on sustainability. One of the main problems in these approaches is waste management. Urban populations of students, professors, and administrative workers generate waste volumes in coffee shops, canteens, photocopying centers, offices, among others. It is necessary to create plans that promote measures of prevention, recovery of waste and minimize the environmental impacts associated with generation. The present work analyzes the quantity and composition of waste generated at the Amazon State University's (Campus Puyo) as an important step in the initial diagnosis of integrated waste management plans. The estimated average daily solid waste generation was estimated around 71 kilograms. There is a high recycling potential composed mainly of: paper 10%, glass 5%, plastic 18%, metals 1%, and organic 46%. The information generated in this study can contribute to the establishment of alternative solutions in waste management and disposal.

  • Open access
  • 119 Reads
A brief account of the search for peptide vaccines

An increasing trend of viral diseases have led to search for faster response systems for preventives and therapeutics. While traditional vaccinations have led to spectacular successes against smallpox and polio viruses, the need for rapid response to new viral epidemics, like in the case of Ebola and Zika viruses, has called for new ways of tackling such infections. The fact that viral diseases are notoriously difficult to control, due primarily to their nature of fast mutational changes leading to growth of new strains and development of strains resistant to prevailing medications, adds an extra layer of complexity to the task. Peptide vaccines provide one means of responding to the epidemics. Since they are developed based on the viral sequences and focused on the antigenic sites, peptide vaccines are amenable to rational design paradigms. The first such vaccine for the canine parvovirus was developed in the 1980s and many peptide vaccines against human viral diseases are under different stages of phase trials. While production of such vaccines can be fast and cost-effective, and there are several issues still to be resolved, peptide vaccines are expected to play a major role in the future. In this very bried review we recount current status and some of the different approaches to design of peptide vaccines.

  • Open access
  • 140 Reads
Affectation of thrips palmi in the quality and production of the naranjilla in the Ecuadorian Amazon.
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Many amazon producers used to apply various agrochemicals on crops of naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) with the objective of controlling different pests, and also increasing the size of the fruit. This kind of crop has a very high acceptance among the producers of Pastaza province. The low level of identification of Trips Palmi leads us to believe that the symptomatology and damages are associated with the phytotoxicity of the plant caused by the various pesticides, masking the high incidence of this pest and generating a decline in yields. This has an impact on economy of producers and for this reason, it was necessary to carry out this research in order to determine the impact of T. Palmi on crops of naranjilla. This experiment took place in two different productive farms located in the community of San Cristoball, canton of Santa Clara in Pastaza province. A sample of 35 plants was taken to identify the pest first. It was indispensable to know the specific location for which quantity and quality variables were proposed. It was demonstrated that, in the quantity variable (plant height), there were highly significant differences, in comparison with the average values between farms at all times (days: 1, 8, 16 and 24). It became apparent that there is a 100% impact of Thrips Palmi in both farms. This pest is located on the upper side of young leaves causing chlorotic and rosulate yellowing in upper, middle and lower leaves as well.

  • Open access
  • 74 Reads
New Microbiological and Pharmacokinetic models

In this paper, a multilinear regression (MLR) analysis has been carried out in order to accurately predict physicochemical properties and biological activities on a group of antibacterial quinolones by means of a set of structural descriptors called topological indices. The aim of this work is to develop prediction equations for these properties after collecting the maximum number of data from the literature on antibacterial quinolones.

The five regression functions selected by presenting the best combination of various statistical parameters, subsequently validated by means of internal validation (intercorrelation, Y-randomization and leave-one-out cross-validation tests), allowed the reliable prediction of minimum inhibitory concentration 50 versus Staphylococcus aureus (MIC50Sa), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC50Spy) and Bacteroides fragilis (MIC50Bf), mean residence time (MRT) after oral administration and volume of distribution (VD).

We conclude that the combination of molecular topology methods and MLR provides an excellent tool for the prediction of pharmacological properties.

  • Open access
  • 237 Reads
FRAMA 1.0: Framework for Moving Average Operators Calculation in Data Analysis

Moving Average (MA) operators are used in Box-Jenkins’s ARIMA models in time series analysis (1). We can used MA operators of structural descriptors are useful to quantify multiple conditions or parameters in complex datasets in Omics, Medicinal Chemistry, Nanotechnology, etc. (2-7). Speck-Planche and Cordeiro have also used this kind of models in multiple problems (8-11). In this work, we develop a desktop application that allows applying mathematical and statistical calculations in batches, on input and output variables selected by the user. From the obtained result a percentage sample of data is taken with a random contrast on which Machine Learning algorithms are applied.

  • Open access
  • 110 Reads
In silico molecular GRIP docking studies of antioxidant potentials of black tea compounds

Black tea is a very widely accepted and popular beverage that has attracted the research limelight and has exhibited multifaceted health effects due to the presence of wide range of pharmacologically active molecules. This paper aims to explore the antioxidant potentials of black tea catechins by in silico molecular GRIP docking studies. Basing on the result of dock score epicatechin gallate, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate all exhibited significant antioxidant potentials against the targeted enzymes.

  • Open access
  • 78 Reads
Use of cocoa polyphenols (Theobroma cacao) as natural Amazonian antioxidant in the elaboration of sausage fresh

Ecuador is considered one of the richest countries regarding biodiversity and its Amazon region guests several species of flora and fauna. Cacao (Theobroma Cacao) is a tropical fruit with high commercial and biological importancedue to the presence of polyphenols with antioxidant activity.

Phenolic compounds are indispensable for plant physiological functions and participate as defenses in situations of stress and various stimuli. In recent years it has been shown that a diet rich in plant polyphenols can improve health and decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases; The world today is talking about functional foods and it is here born the importance of creating Amazonian products combined with natural antioxidants to create enriched foods.Have been developed different “chorizo” formulas, the most consumed thick meat product in the population, by adding respectively the 2%, 4% and 6% (p/p) percentages of polyphenols extract from cocoa fruits. Polyphenols contents, organoleptic and bromatological properties have been evaluated.

  • Open access
  • 67 Reads
Cocoa polyphenols (Theobroma cacao) as natural Amazonian antioxidant in sausage fresh.


Ecuador is considered one of the richest countries regarding biodiversity and its Amazon region guests several flora and fauna species. Cacao (Theobroma Cacao) is a tropical fruit with high commercial and biological importance due to the presence of polyphenols with antioxidant activity. In the present work cocoa polyphenols (Theobroma cacao) are used as natural Amazonian antioxidant in sausage fresh. Experimental units of sausage samples with different percentages (0, 2, 4, 6%) of cocoa polyphenols in the formulation with an experimental size of 5 kg were made; once the sausage was prepared, samples of 100 g were taken to perform sensory analysis and 100 g of samples destined for microbiological analysis. The microbiological analysis was performed on each sample of the formulated product, analyzes on the newly elaborated samples (1 day of elaboration) and an analysis with samples was developed after an estimated time (30 days) to assess the differences and active action of the antioxidant as a natural Amazonian preservative were performed. 15 people evaluated sensory characteristics to the sausage samples through a tasting test. As main results the natural antioxidants use allows prolonging the product shelf life, which results in an increase in color stability, since it prevents the transition from myoglobin to metamyoglobin, as well as maintaining its organoleptic conditions unalterable, slowing down oxidative phenomena such as product rancidity or increasing resistance to bacterial growth, since antioxidants of polyphenolic nature have antimicrobial activity.

  • Open access
  • 98 Reads
Optimizing queries via search server ElasticSearch: a study applied to large volumes of genomic data
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When it is necessary to analyze large volumes of data, Bioinformatics acts as a multidisciplinary field that integrates knowledge from different areas. Its applicability goes from the analysis of biological data to the construction of tools and methodologies that allow the use of the computer for tasks usually laboratory. This work aims to use the ElasticSearch server to optimize searches on genomic data made publicly available by the UCI Machine Learning Repository. As a case study, the results obtained were compared with the MySQL and PostgreSQL relational databases. With the proposal presented, a gain of more than 90% was achieved through the use of ElasticSearch technology.