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  • Open access
  • 24 Reads
Thymol: Insecticide and repellent activity
in life phases of Aedes aegypti

Aedes aegypti is a mosquito that causes great impact on public health, especially because it is
responsible for transmission of arbovirus such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. The difficulty
in controlling Ae. aegypti is most because it is an anthropophilic insect, highly adapted to
urban environments, and present in all Brazilian states and in other tropical countries. The
females of the mosquito are the only ones that feed on blood. When this blood is
contaminated, the virus is transmitted at the time of blood repast. The primary way to fight
these arboviruses is still to control the vector, either by destroying their breeding grounds or
by using insecticides. Chemical insecticides are the most used on vector control; however,
since the last decades, development of resistance by these insects has been reported. In
addition, most of them have a high residual power, which can cause harm to human health
directly or indirectly if used continuously. This fact led us to search for new alternatives
insecticides and natural repellents, mainly because DEET (the most widely used insect
repellent in the world) can cause serious damage to the nervous system, especially in children
exposed continuously to this product. Thymol is a chemical that belongs to a class of
monoterpenes and is present in the composition of several essential oils, such as thyme,
oregano and rosemary. Essential oils are known for their function as anti-inflammatories,
antibiotics and insecticides. As Thymol is found in large amounts on several essential oils, the
objective of this work was to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent activity of thymol on Ae.
aegypti. Bioassays were performed evaluating the insecticidal activity of thymol in every
phase of the mosquito life cycle. The results showed that thymol presents insecticidal and
repellent action since the high thymol larvicide activity caused the death of 100% of the Ae.
aegypti larvae even at low concentrations (0,1 mg / mL), besides demonstrating inhibition in
egg hatchability, adulticidal activity and repellent. Therefore, it can be concluded that thymol
can be used as an active compound in the composition of insecticides and Ae. aegypti

  • Open access
  • 50 Reads
Optimization of the use of residuals in pig farms: A mini-bibliographic review
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The excreta and urine of the pigs, by not being treated in the farms, constitute the main cause of toxicity of the soil, air and water, generating later problems in livestock and agricultural productions, affecting small and medium producers, affecting public health, decreasing the quality of life and generating environmental damage that must be remedied with a high economic investment. The objective of this bibliographic review was to evaluate the transformation and use of pig waste (manure and urine) in agricultural production. At the international level there are multiple uses for the processing of these residuals, among which the following stand out; the production of bioles and compost as a source of nutrients for crops, and the production of biogas and electrical energy that serve as ecological energy for cooking, lighting and heating the piglets. The success of taking advantage of the waste generated by a pig production system has a great impact on the generation of fertilizers and energy for use in integrated agricultural production systems

  • Open access
  • 29 Reads
Conservation techniques for fishery products from the Ecuadorian Amazon: A bibliographic review

Amazonian fishery products constitute an indispensable component in the food security of the Amazonian peoples of Ecuador. This review work analyzes the main conservation techniques that guarantee the quality and safety of Amazonian fishery products that have a relatively short shelf life, several investigations have shown the use of different conservation technologies (freezing, salting, smoking, vacuum packed) applied in the area capable of extending the post-mortem shelf life of fishery products. Freezing processes have a better capacity to extend the useful life of fishery products compared to conventional cooling, however, artisanal fishing is practiced in this area and an effective cold chain is not guaranteed. Vacuum packaging has great potential for packaging fresh fish products. The use of non-thermal technologies, such as the traditional salting and smoking of native peoples, is an alternative for the conservation of local fishery products.

  • Open access
  • 46 Reads
The voluntary imagination impairment in ASD linked to the neuropeptide N-Acetyl-aspartyl glutamate imbalance on cingulated cortices.

Background: Autism is defined neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significant impairments in social interaction, and imagination as symptoms highlights. Recently have described been the differences of brain function in voluntary and involuntary imagination. Although, individuals with moderate to severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) usually manifest a range of deficits related to the voluntary imagination network, its neurological etiology follow unclear. The AQ is a psychometric test has five developmental domains to assess autistic characteristics in adults (social, communication, imagination, attention to detail, and attention switching/tolerance of change), and in this study we will focus on the domain of 'Imagination', that is directly related to the development of social skills in healthy subjects. Previously, we had described been the altered N-Acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) levels found in cingulated cortices by 1H-MRS in individuals with ASD that suggested the neuronal damage. In this sense and following our research line linked to the neuropeptide NAAG as a key mechanism underlying symptoms of ASD, arise the hypothesis of NAA-NAAG metabolism imbalance and their relationship with impairments of the imagination in autism, which lead the next step in our investigation to correlate NAAG imbalance linked to cingulated cortices with the imagination skills in ASD.

Aim: To study the participation of neuropeptide NAAG metabolism in the cingulated cortices correlated with the AQ domain ‘Imagination’ associated with ASD severity using 1H-MRS.

Methods: We quantified NAAG, and NAA signal separately from the 1H-MRS assessed in 22 patients with ASD and 44 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender on a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. Autism quotients (AQ) scores were assessed. Statistic one-way ANOVA was applied. Furthermore, the Pearson correlation hallmarks the goal.

Results: The results of the Pearson correlation were represented graphically, where it was observed that there is positive low correlation between the AQ domain ‘Imagination’ and NAAG/Cr (r = 0.1135, p = 0.7891) in ACC, and moderate positive correlation with NAA/Cr (r = 0.3758, p =0.0931), and NAA/NAAG (r = 0.4672, P = 0.2048) in ASD group ratio in the PCC (Fig.1). In contrast to TD group, the correlation coefficient was negative. However, when was stratified ASD plus TD groups as AQ1, AQ2, AQ3, and AQ4 subgroups, was shown a moderate negative correlation between ‘Imagination’ and NAAG/Cr (r = - 0.5083, p = 0.0761) in AQ4 (Fig. 2) in ACC, in contrast to AQ1 (control group). Nonetheless in PCC was found a low positive correlation between ‘Imagination’ and NAAG/Cr (r = 0.2629, p = 0.5689), and NAA/NAAG (r = 0.0017, p = 0.9970) in AQ3, but in AQ4 a moderate positive correlation between ‘Imagination’ and NAA/NAAG (r = 0.4724, p = 0.1031). Highlighting, that AQ2, AQ3, and AQ4 groups maintain a pattern correlation to ‘Imagination’ different than the AQ1 group that was considered (below the mean of autistic characteristics) as a group of healthy subjects that indicate disturbed metabolism. These results make us suggest the relation of imagination deficit with severity in ASD symptoms in PCC, and its correlation with NAA-NAAG metabolism imbalance (Crespi, Bernard, et al, 2016); who considered that Imagination exhibits the strongest male bias of all Autism Quotient (AQ) subscales, in non-clinical populations.

Conclusion: The opportunity to measure the concentration of NAAG by 1H-MRS in the cingulate cortices creates a new and promising approach for intensified research on this neuropeptide systems, and development of novel drug candidates in ASD.


  • Crespi, Bernard, et al. "Imagination in human social cognition, autism, and psychotic-affective conditions." Cognition 150 (2016): 181-199.
  • Barnes, Jennifer L. "Fiction, imagination, and social cognition: Insights from autism." Poetics 40.4 (2012): 299-316.
  • Vyshedskiy, Andrey. "Voluntary and Involuntary Imagination: Neurological Mechanisms, Developmental Path, Clinical Implications, and Evolutionary Trajectory." Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture 4.2 (2020): 1-18.
  • Open access
  • 48 Reads
The persistence of the electromagnetic balance in proteins

In the last six decades a large number of mathematical methods have been developed to determine the predominant function of a protein. This work uses a graphic refinement to one of these methods, the Polarity Index Method. The results show that the polarity/charge profile of a sequence, in addition to having a distinctive profile, is self-modifying to maintain an electromagnetic balance. We consider that this regularity contributes to the understanding of the understanding between the preponderant function of a sequence and its electromagnetic balance.

  • Open access
  • 36 Reads
Immune condition of the carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) haemocytes in response to temperature challenge

The aim of this study was to investigate the immunotoxic effects of acute temperature challenge in the carpet shell clam, Ruditapes decussatus. Haemolymph samples were incubated at 20 and 30 °C for 24 h. Total haemocyte count (THC), percentage of dead cells (PDC), phenoloxidase (PO), lysozyme (LYZ), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), esterase (EST), lectin (LCT), and antibacterial (AB) activities were chosen as biomarkers of temperature stress. Our results revealed that exposure to high temperatures increases the AB and the LCT activities while it decreases the THC, the PDC, and the ALP activity. Meanwhile, no obvious negative effect of acute temperature stress was detected on PO, LYZ, and EST activities.

  • Open access
  • 61 Reads
Hydrocarbon levels and biochemical biomarkers in the clam Ruditapes decussatus collected from Tunis lagoon (Tunisia)

Biomarkers are used as tools to measure physiological, cellular, biochemical, and/or molecular changes, reflecting the level of disturbances and alterations caused by the exposure of organisms to chemical pollutants present in the environment. In the present study, a multi-biomarker approach was used to assess the effects of hydrocarbon contamination in the southern lagoon of Tunis (Tunisia), on clam Ruditapes decussatus. Sediments and clams were collected from four locations: three of them were located within the polluted lagoon (S1, S2 and S3) and another one was allocated in a clean site on the Mediterranean coast (SR). Total hydrocarbons were extracted from clam tissues and sediments. On the other hand, biomarkers of oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and lipid peroxidation were measured. Hydrocarbon analysis revealed a high pollution state in the south lagoon of Tunis with a spatial variation. On the other side, our results showed activation of antioxidant enzymes in clams sampled from the polluted area as well as neurotoxicity. These results reveal the alteration of the health status in these organisms generated by the anthropogenic pollution in this area. Overall, the present work clearly showed that affected biomarkers could be useful tools for biomonitoring in the study area.

  • Open access
  • 47 Reads

NEURODAT'21 IBRO-PERC Lecture on Models, Simulations, and Self-Awareness

This is a talk by Dr. Romero Duran from a series presented as part of the NEURODAT’21 training program funded by IBRO-PERC Soft Skills Training call of the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and the Pan-Europe Regional Committee (PERC). NEURODAT’21 is devoted to promote soft skills on entry level medicine and also STEMS area students interested on neurosciences. This part of the series focus the development of computational models in neurosciences, the use of these models to run simulations, the possibility of these simulations to become matrix-like worlds and/or the reachability of a self-awareness state by artificial intelligence computational models in the present and near future. Language note: English-Spanish bi-lingual talk and text.

  • Open access
  • 56 Reads

NEURODAT'21 IBRO-PERC Lecture on Databases in Neurosciences

This is the 3rd talk by Dr. Romero Duran from a series presented as part of the NEURODAT’21 training program funded by IBRO-PERC Soft Skills Training call of the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and the Pan-Europe Regional Committee (PERC). NEURODAT’21 is devoted to promote soft skills on entry level medicine and also STEMS area students interested on neurosciences. It is an introductory talk about the development and use of databases in neurosciences. Language note: English-Spanish bi-lingual talk and text.

Esta es la tercera charla del Dr. Romero Duran de una serie presentada como parte del programa de formación NEURODAT'21 financiado por la convocatoria IBRO-PERC Soft Skills Training de la International Brain Research Organisation (IBRO) y el Comité Regional Paneuropeo (PERC). ). NEURODAT'21 se dedica a promover las habilidades blandas en la medicina de nivel de entrada y también a los estudiantes del área STEMS interesados en neurociencias. Es una charla introductoria sobre el desarrollo y uso de bases de datos en neurociencias. Nota de Idioma: Charla y texto bilingüe inglés-español.

  • Open access
  • 47 Reads

NEURODAT'21 IBRO-PERC Lecture on Neuroinformatics

Description. Welcome to PhD. M.D. Francisco Javier Romero-Duran invited talk cover and tutoring channel on Neuroinformatics. This talk is part of the NEURODAT’21 training program funded by IBRO-PERC Soft Skills Training call of the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and the Pan-Europe Regional Committee (PERC). NEURODAT’21 is devoted to promote soft skills on entry level medicine and also STEMS area students interested on neurosciences. On this talk the professor made an introduction to the basic concepts related to Neuroinformatics.

Description of channel. This channel is part of the NEURODAT’21 training program funded by IBRO-PERC Soft Skills Training call of the International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) and the Pan-Europe Regional Committee (PERC). NEURODAT’21 is a training program devoted to promote soft skills on entry level Medicine and also STEMS area students interested on Neurosciences. In this tutoring channels students will be allowed to do online public questions and comments about different topics of Chemical Neurosciences. Prof. Arrasate will answer all questions within his area of expertise. This professor may interact with you in Galego-Portuguese, English, or Spanish.

Talk & Channel Topics. The emphasis is on the use of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to integrate chemical, biochemical, genomics, and medical information towards the diagnosis and patient care in neurology.

Instructions for students. The steps for participation are: (1) Wait for channel starting in 2021-Dec-25, you will see a posting comments option/button, (2) Register/login with your email and password to validate your user, (3) Post your question/comment for the Prof. of the channel, (4) Wait for the email advising that professor has answered your question, (5) Make other questions related to this topic or other topics, (6) Request your attendance certificate to or directly to the email of the professor.

General notes. (1) Students are allowed to made multiple questions following the same discussion threat or open new questions. (2) Some professors may release different materials, slides, etc., that the student can use to study and/or follow the discussion, click the button bellow to see the pdf files. (3) Language note: some professors allow students to select their favorite language of interaction according to professor communications skills, accordingly materials, questions, and answers may appear in these languages. (4) The channel will be open until conference finish the post-publication stage, contact chairpersons for doubts: