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  • Open access
  • 27 Reads

Heatwaves cause mortality and morbidity worldwide. Critically, it contributes to various detrimental impacts on sustainable development, human safety, and the environment, but policymakers and the public pay little attention. During the heatwave period from 2015 to 2018, El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) generated dry and warm temperatures in Thailand, leading to 158 deaths during the heatwave period. This study examines spatial and temporal heatwave variability (number, duration, frequency, magnitude, and amplitude). We also analyze the heatwave in urban, peri-urban, and rural Thailand. The result revealed that land surface temperature (LST) as a proxy for air temperature in heatwave assessment with a high correlation at r = 0.62 (HWN) and 0.71 (HWF) and a moderate relationship r = 0.48 (HWD), 0.39 (HWM), and 0.40 (HWA), respectively. It has been associated with heatwave occurrences far from the methodological station, especially duration and frequency. Northern Bangkok and Pathum Thani have the highest daytime and overnight heatwave intensities. Ultimately, our findings help decision-makers, and the public comprehends descriptive spatiotemporal heatwave trends, helping them to cope with extreme weather situations and contributing to future heatwave forecasts over Thailand's provinces.

  • Open access
  • 25 Reads
Application of a latest-model ground water flow meter
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Ground water plays an important role for civil works and underground environment. The latest model ground water flow meter is tested in laboratory to verify its applicability for Vietnam-made PVC pipes which have different slit shape and interval from Japanese pipes. The test result shows that the GWF Meter works propoerly even in Vietnam-made PVC pipe. Filed application in Japan shows that the GWF Meter is useful to solve water leakage problem of ponds or lakes resultinfg preservation of a historically siginificant emvironment.

  • Open access
  • 35 Reads

Rice and sugarcane agriculture have been central to the economy, culture, and politics of Thailand, however, there are downsides as they also contribute to waste and pollution due to open burning practices. This study focuses on determining the impact of wind parameters and field burning area on the PM2.5 mass concentration recorded in the vicinity of the capital city of Thailand. The average daily PM2.5 data collected from ground stations located surrounding area of the capital city in 3 years from 2019 to 2021 is chosen to observe the trend of the air quality condition . Wind characteristic including wind velocity and wind path in the same period of study is investigated by statistical method. The results display the correlation between PM2.5 intensity in Bangkok city and the burning area from Northeastern and the Eastern with the correlation coefficient of 0.779 and 0.812. Wind direction shares similar outcome when there is a majority of moderate PM2.5 density found in the Northeast with the same time of the after harvesting progress. The findings are expected to be used for deploying the air quality, understanding the source of pollution and geospatial distribution of PM2.5 mass concentration in Bangkok, Thailand.

  • Open access
  • 26 Reads
Collaboration with Vietnam national university in analytical chemistry and social implementation for smart city

Developing countries usually experience many social problems associated with rapid economic growth. Among them, environmental and food problems are the most significant issues. Due to rapid industrialization, the pollution of water and air is left untreated, and many accidents are threatening environmental and food safety and security. For example, in Vietnam, the GDP growth showed more than 6 % in 2022, despite the COVID-19 problems in the world. However, it was recently that the activities for environmental protection started. Vietnam government started to care the environmental issues when they established a basic law on environmental protection in 2014. Recently, the importance of environmental monitoring technology and human resources was emphasized, and new laws on environmental monitoring were issued in recent years. Due to the growing awareness of environmental issues, analytical chemistry is gathering much attention. However, due to the lack of analytical technologies and instruments, analytical chemistry education or training is not sufficient even in the top university.
Based on the background, our team at The University of Tokyo started a collaboration of analytical chemistry education in 2015 with Vietnam National University, Hanoi University of Science (VNU-HUS), which is the top university in natural sciences in Vietnam. We established a new syllabus and curriculum for analytical chemistry education in two years. With a help of the analytical industry in Japan, we could install basic analytical instruments in VNU-HUS and opened a new analytical laboratory in 2018 (Figure 1). In 2019, we could start the student practice course for 300 undergraduate students in the Faculty of Chemistry and the Faculty of Environmental Sciences.
The next step is to solve the social problems. Here, we first target environmental monitoring technology and human resource development. on-site Usually, analytical samples are transported to central analytical laboratories and analyzed. However, the analytical capacity using expensive analytical instruments is limited, and the analysis time (1-2 days) is also a significant problem when huge analytical samples are analyzed. Therefore, on-site monitoring technologies are required; however, the available technology is currently limited or they have several problems in the limit of detection and cost. Our team at The University of Tokyo has strong microfluidic technologies, where analytical laboratories are integrated, and sensitive and quick analysis becomes possible with small devices. Microfluidic technologies have also a high potential for cost reduction due to the low amount of reagent consumption.
Human resource development is also another important aspect. The Vietnam government has more than 2000 central and local officers; however, the analytical training is insufficient. We agreed to establish a certified analytical training course in VNU-HUS.
With these huge demands on analytical technologies and human resources, UTokyo, VNU-HUS, and MONRE (Ministry of Natural Resouces and Environment) agreed to start a SATREPS (Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development) project, and the proposal was accepted in 2022. The university, governments, and industries in Japan and Vietnam are involved and collaborate. The final goal is to establish a smart sensing city with analytical technologies, human resources, IoT, and data science.
In this talk, these activities are introduced, which have a relationship with “One Health One World” concept in the meaning of realizing environmental safety and security.

  • Open access
  • 34 Reads
Reflectance Simulations of Voxel-Based Virtual Chinese Cabbage Farms

Chinese cabbage has been an essential daily vegetable supply both for human and livestock meals in Asian countries as it has various nutrients and is easy to cultivate. However, as global climate changes and anthropogenic industrialization bring challenges to global food security, monitoring the growth status of Chinese cabbage from a macroscopic way can be of much importance to ensure its yield. Remote Sensing has a great potential to provide timely, ubiquitous, and frequent observations of the land surface at a large range of spatial scales, nevertheless the effects of shadows could also result in incorrect estimation of object properties such as reflectance, especially for the sensors of the middle or high-resolution satellite. A voxel-based simulation way has been a potential tool for compensating shadow effects which considers the shielding ratio of direct and diffuse solar irradiance categorized as Cast Shadow (CS) and Self Cast Shadow (SCS). In this study. six voxel-based virtual Chinese Cabbage farms with lengths and widths of 100m of different cultivation ways were simulated the reflectance of the red band (645-685nm) ranging from 0.045186 to 0.124521. Such result showed the available accessibility of this methodology for the comparison analysis with global available Sentinel-2 imagery with corresponding reflectance of fields in Kawakami Village, Nagano County, Japan. This study tends to provide benchmarks for monitoring different growth statuses of Chinese Cabbage at a large scale by high-resolution satellite images.

  • Open access
  • 8 Reads
Long-term spatiotemporal analysis of lake surface water area changes in Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia (SEA) contains the largest number of lakes that are crucial for providing essential ecosystem services for human society, such as water supply, agriculture, tourism, and recreation. SEA region has a strong climate with frequent and severe natural disasters. Both direct and indirect factors, such as anthropogenic activities and climate variability and change, have had an impact on lake surface water. Mapping surface water over time provides the explicit data essential for understanding the relative impacts of climate variability and changes and human activities. This research aims to monitor a change in surface water areas of lakes in SEA by delineating and analyzing high spatial resolution of satellite images in time series.

The primary tools used in the methodology for tracking and delineating the surface water areas over the timescale are Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing technology. The map generalization methods were applied to ensure the consistency of the data. The results demonstrate high-resolution data with an estimation of the surface water area for each lake. The map reveals the surface water dynamic changes over the region, which is essential for understanding the relative impacts on the surface water of lakes in SEA.

  • Open access
  • 6 Reads
Risk Assessment on Logistics and BCP Along
the Southern Economic Corridor (SEC)

As globalization progresses, the exchange of goods becomes easier, making countries with better connectivity more appealing to international enterprises. Established in 1992 as a part of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) program, the Southern Economic Corridor (SEC) has received much attention as a logistics hub. For instance, a Japanese retailer Aeon planned to offer international logistics services in Cambodia, driven by Southeast Asia's expanding trade and cross-border e-commerce. As a result, freight transport demand among countries along the SEC is expected to grow in the future. However, while already being vulnerable to natural disasters like flood, countries along the SEC have gone through drastic socio-economic and political changes and rapid urbanization since the 1990s. These changes lead to the increase in population and alter land cover which is closely related with flooding. Therefore, this study aims to assess logistics and business continuity plan (BCP) risks along the SEC by focusing on SWOT analysis, population and land cover change over the last 30 years. SWOT analysis framework was adapted to evaluate the internal strengths and weaknesses and the external opportunities and threats of the SEC using data from international organizations and local authority websites. Two influential factors of flood runoffs: population and land cover were further analyzed using LandScan Global Population datasets from 2000-2020 and ESA global land cover maps from 1992-2020 respectively. The results show a higher rate of population growth at approximately 58.1% along the main roads of the SEC and significant forest cover loss between 1992-2020, which could have an impact on flood runoffs and disrupt logistics system. Transport planners and business operators can benefit from these results by taking into account these factors in future risk management and business continuity planning.

  • Open access
  • 24 Reads
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There was no maintenance standard for interior finish of station in Japan. Therefore, Asano Taiseikiso engineering made the standards with Tokyo Metro or other 7 railway companies in accordance with situations of each company, and carry out inspection, soundness diagnosis and repair work. The paper describes development of new inspection methods for interior finish in stations, results of inspections and analysis of them.

In traditional inspection procedures of a certain railway company,only a visual inspection was applied. However, as a result allowed a high number falling object incidents to occur.

Therefore, inspection procedures were improved for introducing new inspection procedures with introduceing contact check, prodding test for ceilings, hammering test, pulling test for walls, shaking test, stepping test for floor, etc. Due to the improvement of inspection procedures, the number of falling object accidents in a certain railway company has steadily decreased.

  • Open access
  • 27 Reads

A microgrid (MG) is defined as “a group of interconnected energy-consuming devices and equipment and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that act as a single controllable entity with respect to the utility grid”. Solar powered MGs are thought to be useful for disaster damage mitigation especially a loss of electricity. Therefore, this study aims at developing a nationwide solar MG applicability potential map aiming at achieving a more disaster resilient community in the future. Solar photovoltaic (PV) database and hazard risk maps are used to choose low-hazard risk solar PV locations. Then, the number of affordable people by those PVs is estimated. The number of people around designated shelter places and the affordable population using solar power are compared to find potential locations for future MG installation. The result of the study showed that candidate places for solar powered MG systems are mostly located in the prefectures along the pacific side of Japan, where large earthquakes occurred or are predicted in the near future. In those places, installation of MG systems would further improve the disaster resilience. However, the connectivity of a local grid to the main power supply should also be considered to assess the MG suitability more appropriately. The electricity grid information and Tsunami hazard areas should be included to represent more realistic situation for the MG planning in the future studies.

  • Open access
  • 34 Reads
The intricacies in the implementation of integrated geospatial platform, database, and application for disaster risk management in Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand, an Indian Himalayan state, is prone to natural hazards such as floods, cloudbursts, glacier lake outbursts, forest fires, landslides, and earthquakes. Disasters are inevitable, but we can minimize their impact through effective management. The use of digital information technology has demonstrated its potency across the domain. Similarly, ICT can be an effective tool to support in all four stages of disaster management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.

The Integrated Geospatial Platform, Database, and Application for Disaster Risk Management (IGPDA-DRM) is currently under operation as a decision support system. It is an ICT-based solution for disaster risk management in the state of Uttarakhand. The system contains wide range of geospatial data like baseline, critical infrastructures, near real-time field observations, meteorological, and openly accessible satellite observations as standard OGC service. The system supports alerts and monitoring, resource mobilization, evacuation and shelter management, routing, reporting, and interagency collaboration through multi-user support.

The aim was to examine the current implementation status of the IGPDA-DRM system, the data status, and understanding shift in stakeholder perception due to capacity building in government departments involved in resources and disaster management. Effective implementation poses a challenge due to data issues, lack of staff readiness, effective business continuity plan, and a degree of bureaucratic hassle. The conclusion can be drawn that changing the perspective on technology during the emergency process can only lead to collaboration between emergency employees and technology, which results in the functional implementation of the IGPDA-DRM platform for disaster management.