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Possibility Non-Invasive Detection Magnetic Particles in Biological Objects
Levan Ichkitidze * 1, 2 , Mikhail Belodedov 3 , Alexander Gerasimenko 2, 4 , Dmitry Telyshev 2, 4 , Sergei Selishchev 5
1  Institute for Bionic Technologies and Engineering of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, 119991 Russian Federation
2  Institute of Biomedical Systems of National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET”, Zelenograd, 124498 Moscow, Russian Federation
3  Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, 105005 Russian Federation
4  Institute for Bionic Technologies and Engineering of I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119991 Moscow, Russian Federation
5  Institute of Biomedical Systems of National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET”,Zelenograd, Moscow, 124498 Russian Federation

10.3390/I3S2021Dresden-10137 (registering DOI)
Abstract:

We evaluated the minimum concentration and minimum size of magnetic particles (MPs) within which modern ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensors (MFS) can detect them. Calculations showed that magnetite MPs with specific magnetization with characteristic sizes of ≥50 nm and a concentration of CV ~ 0.1 vol.% Can be detected at a distance l ≤ 0.1 mm using MFS with a magnetic field resolution of SB ≥1nT. However, at such a close distance it is impossible to non-invasively approach the biological object of study. On the other hand, the same MPs are easily detected at l ≤ 30 mm using supersensitive MFS based on the phenomena of superconductivity (SQUID) or superconductivity and spintronics (combined MFS (CMFS)). These sensors require cryogenic operating temperatures (4–77 K), and SB ~ 10–100 fT are realized in them. Note that superparamagnetic particles or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can also be non-invasively detected by SQUID or CMFS sensors, assuming that their concentration in the material is CV ≥ 0.0000001 vol.%. It is believed that CNTs may contain catalytic iron particles or encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles in nanotubes. Thus, modern supersensitive magnetic field sensors with SB ≤ 100 fT make it possible to detect MPs in nanoscale, submicron, and micron sizes in biological objects. They can be used for non-invasive control of organs, implants, prostheses and drug carriers in the necessary parts of the body. Particularly important is the non-invasive control of CNTs in functional biocompatible nanomaterials, which have good prospects for widespread use in medical practice.

Keywords: magnetic particles; magnetic field sensor; magnetic field resolution; carbon nanotubes
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