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Source and source region of carbonaceous species and trace elements in PM10 over Delhi, India
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1  CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, D, K S Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110012, India
2  Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India
Academic Editor: Patricia Quinn (registering DOI)

This study investigated the carbonaceous species [elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC),water soluble organic carbon (WSOC)] along with the trace elements (Al, S, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Pb, Cr, F, Cl, Na, K, Mg, Ca, P) in PM10 over megacity Delhi, India (collected from 2015-2019) to address the significant scientific issues (i.e., what are the directionality or pathway of these emissions; what are the possible emission sources, which are distressing the observation site; periodical variations in these emissions; whether the emissions are local, regional or trans-boundary). Integration of these problem are addressed using the statistical approaches potential source areas (PSA) [using hybrid modelling i.e. potential source contribution factor (PSCF)], conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) and principal component analysis (PCA). A profile of higher concentration of PM10 was observed during post-monsoon (322 ± 73 µg m-3) followed by winter (271±87 µg m-3) and low concentration during summer (221 ± 89 µg m-3) followed by monsoon (167±93 µg m-3). Further, seasonal PSCF and CBPF indicates local sources (highly polluted residential, traffic congestions and industrial emissions) and regional sources (Haryana, Punjab) dominancy during winter and post-monsoon seasons at the receptor site whereas during summer and monsoon along with local source and the regional, trans-boundaries (Indo-Gangatic plane,Pakistan, Afganistan and Bay of Bengal) air parcel pattern also contribute to the aerosol loading at the site. Moreover, PCA approach framed four common sources [crustal/road dust (RD), industrial emission (IE), fossil fuel combustion +Biomass burning (FCC+ BB),vehicular emission (VE)] with one mixed source over the sampling site of Delhi.

Keywords: PM10; OC; EC; Elements; PSCF; CBPF; PCA; Delhi
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