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A Review on Recent Developments in Plasma Separators Lab-on-Chip Microfluidics Devices and the Experimental Analysis of FFF 3D Printed Surfaces
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Academic Editor: Nunzio Cennamo

Published: 02 December 2022 by MDPI in 3rd International Electronic Conference on Applied Sciences session Student Session

Viruses like COVID-19 need faster detection and sampling than the rate at which they spread to ensure the country’s sustainable health recovery. Blood plasma has proven to be a crtitical and better clinical sample for the detection of various medical conditions as compared to whole blood. For in-situ and in-vivo health monitoring, plasma can be easily processed through Microfluidics Lab-On-Chip (LOC) Devices without clotting that shortens the turnaround time with minimum sample and reagents. The presented work discusses key properties of Blood Plasma, its suitability to Microfluidics LOC applications and the importance of Passive Plasma Separators as an embedded unit within any kind of LOC Device. The Passive LOC Plasma Separators offer rapid extraction without external forces in the form of miniaturized automated unit. The article compares various plasma separators on the basis of plasma extraction efficiency, fabrication techniques, and separation science utilised for haemolysis free extraction. Recent development in the area of membrane based [1]; sedimentation-assisted [2], gravitational assisted [3], self-driven [4], and recently emerging plasma separators are discussed in detail. The article also gives an insight into the possible future developments towards the faster and more economical fabrication of such disposable devices and their economic extension. To further support our vision, we fabricated some Fused Filament Fabricated (FFF) 3D Printed parts and reported the minimum average roughness of 1.466µm and the contact angle 76.5°. The factorial analysis for two factor ANOVA without replication give a variance of σ2=0.175, and FESEM analysis of surfaces also depicts optimum surface quality.


  1. Amasia and Madau, “Large-volume centrifugal microfluidic device for blood plasma separation”, Bioanalysis 2010,
  2. Su, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Y.; Chen, M.; Weng, Z.; Wang, J.; Zeng, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Ge, S.; Zhang, J.; Xia, N. High-Efficiency Plasma Separator Based on Immunocapture and Filtration. Micromachines 2020, 11, 352.
  3. Sanghoon Park, Roxana Shabani, Mark Schumacher, Yoon Seoung Kim, Young Min Bae, Kyeong Hee Lee, Hyoung Jin Cho, “On chip whole blood plasma separator based on microfiltration, sedimentation and wetting contrast”, Microsyst Technol, 2015;
  4. Wang, Y.; Nunna, B.B.; Talukder, N.; Etienne, E.E.; Lee, E.S. “Blood Plasma Self-Separation Technologies during the Self-Driven Flow in Microfluidic Platforms”, Bioengineering 2021, 8, 94.
Keywords: Microfluidics; Lab-on-Chip Devices; Passive Plasma Separators; Self-driven extraction; Additive Manufacturing Techniques; Fused Filament Fabrication; Material Extrusion; Biomedical Disposable Devices; 3D Printed Polymers; Rapid Prototyping.
Comments on this paper
Overall the information presented represents valuable information regarding the feasibility of using FFF Passive Plasma separators. This is an interesting study and the authors have collected a unique dataset using cutting edge methodology. Some pathologies treated in the emergency room often in need of quick and simple techniques for biomarker detection and quantification so that early decisions that modify medical treatment decisions can be made. This update greatly contributes to timely diagnosis and decision making.The review is generally well written and structured.

Bobby Tyagi
This review is beneficial for the other researchers who are going to work on thi field. The authors have written this review in a very well mannered way. This review also gives a information on the feasibility of FFF plasma separators.

Mirza Amil Ali Beg
The work is quite innovative and covers the detailed survey on plasma seperate and also opens an idea to explore new and economical fabrication technology in healthcare service.

Runjhun Dutta
This is really an amazing piece of work.

Abhishek Raj
Concerning to the viability of using FDM Passive Plasma separators, the information supplied overall is valuable. Overall a good overview of recent advancements in passive plasma separators and lab-on-chip microfluidic .

Aditi Khandelwal
This paper is beneficial for the field and i strongly recommend all readers to read and soak in the great information regarding plasma separators.
It is very well written and the unique study may be highly beneficial for its field.

Dushyant Dubey
The aithors have done something new and interesting via. utilizing 3D printing.

Samy Anwar
Good work. Congratulations.