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Flood disaster mapping using geospatial techniques: A Study Case in Pakistan flood-2022
* 1 , 2 , 2 , 3
1  Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
2  State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
3  Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islam-abad, Pakistan


Extreme weather events occurrences have significantly increased as a result of climate change worldwide. The impact of extreme events occurrences, however, is unquestionably greatest in South Asian developing countries due to greater vulnerability and exposure. Pakistan is one of the top 10 countries in the world that are most impacted by climate change. The country has noticed shifting weather patterns, including fluctuations in precipitation and temperature, as well as an increase in the frequency and intensity of heavy torrential downpours, glacial melt, and droughts. The Pakistan flood in 2022 shows a glimpse of the size and destruction that climate change may bring. The inundation caused by the flood of 2022 in Pakistan, which severely affected all of its provinces, is incomparable to any recent catastrophes in terms of the massive spatial and temporal scale. The Pakistan flood in 2022 came in third for human fatalities while being the major cause of displacing roughly 32 million people. We have evaluated the primary causes, impacts, and estimated flood extent with duration using remote sensing (RS) and Geographic information system (GIS) techniques in District Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. The Landsat satellite images were taken for pre-flood, co-flood, and post-flood stages. The Modified Normalized Difference Water Index was used to determine the flood extent, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was used to track changes in vegetation. Land use and land cover were classified using the supervised classification method. The analysis allowed us to evaluate the causes, severity, and damages to built-up regions and standing crops caused by floods. According to the results, the flood of 2022 was mostly caused by an extremely intense downpour in early August 2022. Agriculture and built-up regions were severely impacted by the flood inundation, which lasted for around 6 weeks. The current study provides the actual application of RS approaches as a foundation for efficient mapping of flood inundation and impacts analysis. The Pakistan flood of 2022 brings to light the difficulties in the adaptation that South Asian nations are encountering as well as the critical need for climate mitigation to lessen the likelihood of such occurrences in the future.

Keywords: Flood mapping; remote sensing; climate change; MNDWI; Geospatial techniques