Current energy systems are becoming increasingly decentralized, diverse, and dynamic. More energy is generated and consumed locally through Distributed Energy Systems (DES) and microgrids, which support the conventional centralized system.
Both DES and microgrids can operate autonomously or in island mode, but they can also connect to a larger grid. In this way, well-designed DES can help improve the resilience of networks with a large percentage of renewable energy. An optimal DES considers the different affected agents, the technical-economic feasibility, and the efficiency of the system.
These systems are becoming increasingly important in the future of energy, as they complement conventional centralized generation. DES and microgrids are optimal solutions to create more intelligent and resilient systems that can accept a greater share of renewable energies. On the other hand, these technologies facilitate the access of prosumers (those who produce and consume energy) to energy markets.
The presented project represents a scientific novelty that solves a growing problem for the following reasons:
- The need to integrate renewable energies into the current electrical system: the capacity of electricity generated by renewable energies will reach 4800 GW of capacity in 2026, which is equivalent to the current capacity of electricity generated by fossil fuels or nuclear energy. Therefore, the electrical system needs to transform towards this type of generation since the fluctuation of weather conditions that affect energies such as wind and solar generates fluctuations in the grid.
- Generating net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 is one of the COP26 objectives: this measure is necessary to maintain the rise in temperature below 1.5 degrees Celsius. To achieve this, they promote the decarbonization of the energy system, the reduction in deforestation, the shift towards electric vehicles, and the promotion of investment in renewable energies.
- Dependence on fossil fuels: today there is still enormous energy dependence on countries that produce oil, coal, and gas, as in 2019, 64% of electricity came from this type of fuel.
- The increase of electric vehicles in the global transportation system: between 2019 and 2020, the increase in electric vehicles globally was around 43%, which resulted in more than 10 million of these types of vehicles in 2020. For this growth to be sustainable, it is necessary for the electrical system to adapt to this type of load and coexist with renewable generation.
- The need to ensure good resilience in the grid for systems with renewable energies, electric vehicles, or other systems that compromise the current grid: microgrids help prevent failures and blackouts in the electrical system since these networks can operate in island mode and promote the integration of renewable energies.