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Novel Immobilized Titanium dioxide onto Peanut shell-based activated Carbon for Advance Oxidation Process coupled with response surface models in organic wastewater treatment.
* 1 , 2 , 3
1  Department of Chemical and Petrochemicals Engineering, Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, New Borg Al-Arab city, Alexandria, Egypt
2  College of Health Science, University of Development Study, Ghana
3  Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, United States of America
Academic Editor: Antoni Sánchez


Several impoverished nations lack centralized wastewater infrastructure, making water purification difficult. As a result, this work focuses on how to best degrade organic pollutants from wastewater by immobilizing TiO2 on activated carbon peanut shell (ACPNS) using the co-precipitation method in a hydrothermal process under a simulated solar light. The surface morphology and crystallinity of the produced novel hybrid material were analyzed using SEM, TEM, and XRD. The elemental composition and functional group were examined using XRF and FTIR. Using Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface models, the photodegradation efficiency of the ACPNS-TiO2 was assessed based on three operation parameters, including the concentration of organic pollutant (10-50ppm), photocatalyst dosage (10-60mg/L), and pH (3-12) at a reaction time of 60 minutes. Using degradation efficiency as a response, the BBD produced an experiment matrix with 17 runs to study the interplay between the three inputs. A reduced quadratic model was developed from the data, and it proved to be excellent at predicting outcomes consistent with the experimental data. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the analysis of variance (ANOVA), which indicated the chosen models for photodegradation efficiency, were 0.98 and 0.97, respectively, and were very significant (p < 0.05). The catalyst dosage was determined as the most critical factor with a substantial oppositional influence on the photodegradation process; however, the interaction effect of pollutant concentration and pH impacted the process favorably with optimum degradation efficiency of 99.92%. The degradation efficiency of the 5th repeated cycle of the ACPNS-TiO2 was 74.64%, indicating good reusability of the material. The cost-benefit analysis indicated that the total cost per cubic meter for each treatment activity is 0.8428/m3, implying a low operation and production cost. This work showed that ACPNS-TiO2 might be effectively used for industrial wastewater treatment reducing the overall cost of pure chemicals.

Keywords: Activated Carbon; TiO2; Response surface models; Advance oxidation Process; Optimization analysis