During the last ten years perovskite solar cell (PSC) technology gained the world scientific interest because of some peculiar features as the high absorption coefficient and the carrier transportation that permit to reach efficiencies about 26%. A typical PSC can be obtained by a n-i-p junction where the perovskite is the intrinsic semiconductor sandwiched between a p-type (HTM, Hole Transporting Material) and n-type (ETM, Electron Transporting Material) semiconductor. The HTM is the main source of instability within the solar cell stack. In the standard structure, on top of the HTM a metal counter-electrode is thermally evaporated. Gold is the most used counter-electrode for high efficiency cells, but it is corroded by halogen ions. For these reasons, the HTM and the metal top-electrode can be replaced by a cheap low temperature firing carbon black/graphite layer. Carbon-based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) are a cell concept introduced to address the issues of instability, manufacturing complexity and high costs. Low temperature carbon-based electrodes have been widely applied in perovskite solar cells because of their chemical inertness and compatibility with up-scalable techniques, signifying their solid potential for mass-production. If the low-cost perspective is achieved through the carbon electrode, few works about module upscaling processes are present in literature. In this work, we engineered the process to fabricate low temperature carbon-based cells and modules.
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Process engineering for low-temperature carbon-based perovskite solar modules
Published: 25 May 2023 by MDPI in The 2nd International Electronic Conference on Processes session Energy Systems
Keywords: perovskite; carbon; photovoltaics; module; process optimization