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Effect of HPMC, xanthan gum and psyllium in the formulation of gluten-free bread for the improvement of organoleptic quality.
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1  Universitat Politècnica de València
Academic Editor: Maria Martuscelli


Bread has been present in the human diet since the beginning of history. A new variety of gluten-free bread emerged after the rise of technologies and medical research. A necessary product for the population group that, due to hereditary genetic conditions, allergies or intolerances, is unable to digest gliadins and glutenins. After this new type of bread was launched, the development of ingredients capable of simulating the elastic network of gluten has grown exponentially.

The study aimed to compare and assess the organoleptic quality of three different formulations of gluten-free bread, each with varying amounts of several hydrocolloids, compared to a control sample. The hydrocolloids used in the formulations were hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), psyllium, and xanthan gum.

In the first formulation, the amount of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was increased, as happened with psyllium in the second. Finally, in the third formulation, the xanthan gum was removed. The conclusions were based on the measurements by texture profile analysis (TPA) and colour in the breadcrumb.

In the TPA analysis a decrease in hardness and gumminess was observed when xanthan gum quantity was removed. At the same time, an increase in adhesiveness was shown in this formulation. By contrast, the gumminess increased when the formula had more psyllium.

Regarding the colour analysis, it was observed that the removal of xanthan gum decreased the value of a*, producing a crumb with less redness. On the other hand, the increase in psyllium had the opposite effect, leading to a redder tone in the crumb.

Interestingly, the increases in HPMC in the formulation did not present significant differences. This suggests that HPMC might not have a pronounced impact on the organoleptic qualities of gluten-free bread in terms of texture and colour.

Keywords: gluten-free; HPMC; xanthan gum; psyllium; bread.