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Analysis of Mode Reliability Factors among Off-Campus Students Using Structural Equation Modeling in Dhaka City
* 1 , * 1 , 1 , 2
1  Department of Civil Engineering, BUET
2  Accident Research Institute, BUET
Academic Editor: Letizia De maria


Determining the mode choice for movement in developing cities like Dhaka is beset with multifaceted challenges and intricacies, rendering it an arduous undertaking. Numerous factors contribute to the complexity, thereby impeding the selection of an optimal transportation mode. Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) attracts students from various regions and cultures in Dhaka city. Both on-campus and off-campus students select their preferable mode while traveling to their university based on different factors which affect their choice. Mode performance for off-campus students is significant because of time management, academic success, convenience, flexibility, safety, security, financial considerations, and most importantly as they reside in different locations from the campus of the university. Examining users' perceptions of the choice of preferred modes of transportation in Dhaka city is the primary objective of this study. Transportation performance of buses, rickshaws, private vehicles, and institutional buses were considered as the four main modes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was implemented to create four distinct empirical models to investigate the correlations between key factors that impact mode choice. Models were calibrated using data gathered from 1664 respondents who were formally surveyed to learn about their expectations, experiences, and opinions regarding their usual means of off-campus transportation. There were 20 attributes of travel experience consisting of safety, comfort, travel cost, travel time, waiting time, convenience, reliability, availability, environment- friendliness, travel distance, driver behavior, driving skill, vehicle quality, overtaking tendency, vehicle speed, obeying traffic law, accident probability, weather effect, punctuality of arrival and departure. Moreover, socio-demographic user data on age, gender, method of payment to make trip to institution, travel distance, and time to reach the institution were also amalgamated. Factor analysis and path analysis were conducted using two different statistical software SPSS and STATA 13.
Policy implications have been analyzed in the context of a developing country as Bangladesh from the perceived ratings on mode choice so that by providing reliable, efficient, and student-friendly transportation options; educational institutions, planners, and transportation authorities can support the success and overall well-being of off-campus students.

Keywords: Modal Analysis; Structural Equation Modeling; Mode choice.