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Microwave Irradiation-Assisted Synthesis of Bismuth Ferrite Nanoparticles: Investigating Fuel-to-Oxidant Ratios
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1  Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran
Academic Editor: Julio A. Seijas


Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3, a multiferroic perovskite oxide, has gained significant attention in the field of materials science due to its unique combination of ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic properties. This inherent dual nature makes it essential for various cutting-edge technologies, including non-volatile memories, spintronics, and energy harvesting devices. However, realizing its full potential requires the precise synthesis of high-purity bismuth ferrite nanoparticles. In this scholarly endeavor, we present a comprehensive exploration of the meticulous fabrication of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using a microwave-assisted combustion method conducted in the solid-state regime. We utilized bismuth nitrate and iron nitrate as precursor materials, combined with an organic fuel amalgam consisting of ammonium nitrate and glycine. Achieving complete combustion through microwave irradiation required a detailed optimization process for the oxidant-to-fuel ratio and absolute quantities. Our research systematically investigated various fuel-to-oxidant ratios, including 1:1, 3:6, 6:3, and 12:12, all conducted under rigorously controlled microwave irradiation conditions. Subsequent characterization through infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the successful synthesis of high-purity bismuth ferrite nanoparticles. Furthermore, optimizing the synthesis conditions resulted in nanoparticles with superior purity and structural integrity. In conclusion, we meticulously evaluated the photocatalytic properties of the synthesized bismuth ferrite nanoparticles, with a specific focus on their effectiveness in degrading malachite green. Our findings highlight the significant impact of carefully tailored combustion parameters on the photocatalytic performance of bismuth ferrite nanoparticles, positioning them as promising candidates for various environmental remediation and catalytic applications. This study advances our understanding of the custom synthesis of advanced photocatalytic materials, potentially fostering sustainable technological advancements.

Keywords: Bismuth ferrite; Microwave-assisted combustion method; Photocatalytic properties