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Phytochemicals of Punica granatum L. in inflammatory bowel diseases: a overview
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1  Faculdade Mauricio de Nassau


Punica granatum L., known as pomegranate, is used culturally in folk medicine for its antiinflammatory activity. Its mechanisms are derived from its bioactive compounds, predominantly polyphenols and, according to their structural arrangement, corroborate the prophylaxis of diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). The present study aims to highlight the polyphenols present in Punica granatum L., as well as their positive effects in the context of inflammatory bowel diseases. The methodology was based on an analytical reading of materials already elaborated in the years 2009 to 2018, using descriptors such as: pomegranate, anti-inflammatory activity and secondary metabolites. Polyphenolic compounds isolated from fruits of Punica granatum L. present several pharmacological activities. Urolithine-A reduced inflammation by inhibiting the synthesis of PGE2, attenuated oxidative stress, which is a stimulator of ERK1 / 2, also inhibited by Ellagitannins. Cyanidin represses IL-8, iNOS, COX-2 and NF-kB, Gallic Acid inhibited ROS and STAT3. TNF-α targets Punicalagin, Pubic Acid and Ellagic Acid, as well as interleukins IL-1b, IL-6, perform the progression of homeostasis in IBD. Ellagic Acid, in an acute model of ulcerative colitis, improved the severity of the disease through the profile of inflammatory mediators (IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ). In addition, mediators such as COX-2 and iNOS were repressed and the p38, MAPK, NF-κB and STAT3 signaling pathways were blocked. The mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts are predominantly due to Ellagic Acid. However, the synergistic action of the constituents of the pomegranate makes it therapeutically beneficial. Inflammation is closely related to oxidative stress and this is the result of the chemical imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants. Functional groups of hydroxyl groups as well as the double bonds of phenolic compounds measured their antioxidant effects by the elimination of free radicals and / or the chelation of metallic ions.

Keywords: Punica granatum L.; Antiinflammatory Activity; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases