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Comparative phytochemical analysis of the essential oils of Piper nigrum L. from four different countries
* 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
1  University of Kragujevac, Serbia, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
2  Institute for public health Kragujevac, Serbia
3  Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, University of Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovića 69, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia
4  Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Radoja Domanovića 12, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia

Published: 31 October 2018 by MDPI in 4th International Electronic Conference on Medicinal Chemistry session Posters

The aim of this study is to obtain, qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of essential oil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) from various geographic origins. By comparing the obtained residues, it will determine whether and to what extent the origin affects the qualitative and quantitative composition of the individual components of the black pepper oil. Samples with a declaration of origin from Brazil, Vietnam, Poland and Indonesia were purchased at local stores. The essential oil was isolated by the method of distillation with water vapor from crushed fruits of black pepper. The qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of the oil was performed by the method of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 26 components were identified. Essential oils of Piper nigrum from Brazil, Vietnam contained more monoterpenes and less sesquiterpenes and oxygenated terpenoids as compared to essential oil of Piper nigrum from Poland and Indonesia. GC-MS analysis in all tested samples identified α- and β-pinene, limonene, α- and β-caryophyllene, where β is the caryophyllene compound with the highest percentage distribution (24.51-41.9%). Essential oil of pepper fruits originating from Vietnam and Indonesia contained 3-carene with a representation of 23.13% and 17.25% respectively. The presence of this compound is minimal in oil obtained from pepper originating from Brazil (2.61%) and in the oil originating from Poland, its presence has not been confirmed. β-terpinene, α-copaene and cadinene are not identified in pepper oil from Indonesia while their presence is confirmed in other oils (1.16-6.45%). The qualitative composition of pepper oil, as well as the relative representation of individual components of the oil largely depends on the geographical origin of the drug. Differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oils of pepper can potentially be reflecedt on the manifestation of the biological effects of the oil. The presence of active compounds such as caryophyllene, 3-carene, limonene and pinene place this oil as an important part of modern medicine.

Keywords: Piper nirum L; essential oil; chemical composition; terpenes