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Reorientation of Methods Applied to Plant Protection as an Effect of Climate Change
* 1 , 2
1  Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Doctoral of Economic School
2  The Bucharest University of Economic Studies


The paper provides an overview of the agricultural economy in terms of agricultural development, especially in the area of ​​plant protection, taking into account the effects of climate change. Environmental protection and sustainable management of natural resources, prioritizing an action behavior regarding vulnerabilities regarding the types of fertilizers used, favors the reorientation of methods applied to plant protection in order to protect the biosphere are part of the soil-plant-air-water equation. Climate change involves the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the adaptation of agricultural systems. The risks of using excessive fungicides in plant protection. Plant-soil interdependence in agricultural practice is also highlighted in the paper. One of the main objectives in the field of agriculture is to maintain a low level of greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural sector. The role of research and studies has shown an important factor in reducing the carbon footprint per tonne of food produced from organic farming compared to conventional farming, mainly due to the abandonment of the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The aim of the following research is to collect data and information on the most efficient management models that will create the premises for the production of production models that will respond in the future to the challenges of climate change, especially from the perspective of reducing greenhouse gases, depending the application of a plant protection system in response to climate change and the pressure of diseases and pests. During the research we tried to highlight aspects that, in our opinion, are important for the development of the agricultural sector as part of the economy.

In the analysis we highlighted products that contain active substances, phytoprotective agents or synergistic agents, in the form in which they are presented to the user and which are intended for: - protection of plants or plant products against all harmful organisms or prevention of these organisms; - the exercise of an action on the vital processes of plants, other than a nutritional action; - ensuring the preservation of plant products, insofar as these substances or products are not subject to other legal regulations on preservatives; - destruction of parts of plants, stopping or preventing unwanted plant growth. Thus we found that products (chemicals) that are used to control diseases in agricultural crops are growing in agricultural areas highlighted especially fungicides.
The amount of fungicides sold in solid form in 2018 increased compared to the previous year by 5.7%. The distribution, in total fungicides, on macroregions is as follows: macroregion three (34.2%), macroregion one (26.3%), macroregion four (22.0%), macroregion two (17.5%). The largest quantities of fungicides in solid form were sold in the development regions of Centru (20.6%), Sud-Muntenia (17.6%) and Bucharest-Ilfov (16.6%). For products sold in liquid form, the amount of fungicides decreased by 3.0% compared to 2017. The largest amount of fungicides was sold in macro-region three (49.2%), followed by macro-region one (26.6%), macro-region two (15.7%) and macro-region four (8.5%). By development regions, the South-Muntenia region occupies the first place (27.7%), followed by the Bucharest-Ilfov (21.5%) and Center (19.3%) regions. Thus, in determining the increase in consumption, the different climatic conditions of the regions were analyzed as possible increases in consumption and the critical level of losses by non-compliance with agricultural practices in the application of plant protection products.

Keywords: plant protection, fungicides, biosphere, soil