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Risks for Population Health from Atmospheric Air Pollution in the City of Kazan
Natalya Stepanova, Suryana Fomina, Ilyuza Galimullina
Kazan Federal University, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, K. Marx str., 76, 420008, Kazan, Russia,Kazan Federal University

MDPI AG, 10.3390/IECEHS-1-05706

The assessment of non-carcinogenic risk for the population health from chemicals coming with exhaust gases of motor transport citywide and in certain districts of the city of Kazan was performed. The calculation was carried out according to the results of the laboratory and instrumental tests carried out by FBHI “Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Republic of Tatarstan” for the period from 2010 to 2016. The general toxic effect on the organs of the respiratory system from (42.5 to 62.0%) in the city and districts is due to exposure to the total fraction of TSP, РМ 10 and РМ 2,5. Population risk of the total TSP impact made 1244 cases of additional deaths per year among the city population, apart from external causes. In Vakhitovsky and Sovetsky districts, this index for the whole population made 86 and 281 per year correspondingly. The absence of data on the age-specific death rate in the districts did not allow calculating the given indices for certain age groups. Damage associated with total morbidity of asthma among the cumulative city population caused by the exposure to РМ10 made 486 cases in adults and 67 cases in children per year. Damage from the exposure to РМ2.5 made 332 additional deaths from all causes (14.6%); 1727 from cardiovascular diseases (4.5%); 18 - from respiratory diseases (6.0%). Currently, the assessment of mortality and diseases caused by the air pollution is the starting point for development or correction of regulatory actions in the field of the environmental and the population health protection at the regional levels.