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  • Open access
  • 106 Reads
Inoculum production of Monascus purpureus with Chenopodium quinoa in submerged culture

Fermentation in solid substrate is widely used in the production of inoculum in fungi, but the drawback with this technique is that the fungus takes weeks to invade within the substrate, apart from not having full control of the process. For that reason, it is intended to produce an inoculum by submerged culture which produces a greater amount of biomass, with shorter production time. This research employed the fungus Monascus purpureus, which has been widely used in Asian gastronomy due to the properties of its secondary metabolites, and as substrate used Chenopodium quinoa for being rich in proteins and carbohydrates. A volume of 100 mL was used with the following parameters: pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0), rpm (100, 120, 140) and sodium chloride concentration (0%, 0.01%, 0.05% and 0.10%), having as response variables the N-acetyl glucosamine concentration and the yellow, orange, red hues in the absorbance of 400, 470, 500 nm, respectively. A maximum production of 36.8 mg glucosamine/g dry weight was obtained and the absorbances of 0.789, 0. 977, 0.945 for 400, 470, 500 nm respectively (p<0.05) at the conditions of 0.01% NaCl, pH 6, 120rpm. These results demonstrate that an adequate inoculum can be generated with a considerable amount of mycelium in a reduced space and in a shorter time for future cultures having quinoa as food matrix. Such a substrate allowed the fungus to become adapted, generating a greater propagation in the solid fermentation.

  • Open access
  • 37 Reads
Effect of lemon balm and spearmint extracts on the survival of S. aureus in goat’s raw milk cheese

Previous investigation has revealed that lemon balm and spearmint hydroethanolic extracts present high inhibitory capacity against S. aureus (SA). Raw milk cheeses have shown moderate prevalence of (SA), imposing a safety issue. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of lemon balm and spearmint extracts against SA in goat’s raw milk cheeses during maturation.

Lemon balm and spearmint extracts were obtained using ethanol 70% (v/v) as solvent in a shaking water bath. Milk was inoculated with SA to reach 5 log CFU/g and 1% (w/w) of each extract was added to the curd, while a non-inoculated control was kept. Cheeses were kept in a chamber at 10 °C/98% RH for 15 days. Water activity, pH and SA counts were determined at specific days.

For every treatment, a log-decay function with tail in differential form as primary model (with varying D-value), coupled to a secondary model Bigelow equation of D-value as a function of pH (with parameters logD* at pH 7.0 and zpH) was adjusted.

The dynamic models adequately fitted the survival curves with root mean square errors of 0.1172 and 0.0633, for spearmint and lemon balm, respectively, producing significant parameter estimates. The parameter logD* was affected by the addition of extracts (0.621 [SE=0.061] for spearmint; 1.189 [SE=0.200] for lemon balm) versus the controls (0.932 [SE=0.166] and 0.996 [SE=0.056]); whereas zpH tended to be higher with the addition of extracts (3.172 [SE=0.660] for spearmint; 2.339 [SE=0.835] for lemon balm). The addition of plant extracts significantly decreased the time to achieve one log reduction, which in practical terms corresponded to up to 1.36 log CFU/g reduction by the end of maturation.

Using a dynamic model, this work characterised SA survival parameters in raw milk cheese and demonstrated that lemon balm and spearmint extracts can be used to control SA during maturation.

  • Open access
  • 44 Reads
Review on Ayurvedic Health Drinks and Liquid Nutrition explained in Kshemakutuhala.

Kshemakutuhala is a remarkable text by Kshema Sharma, the Royal physician of King Vikrama during the 16th century A.D. It was based on culinary science. This text is a compilation text which explains varieties of foods and drinks, both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food, their characteristics, and nutritious value. This work is divided into 12 chapters and each chapter is named Utsava. The author had also given importance to liquid nutrition and had dedicated 2 separate Utsava to that. The Eleventh Utsava describes various appetizer preparations. Different types of Appetizers prepared with the main ingredient such as orange, lemon, citron, sesame paste, mango, the root of Moringa oleifera, lotus fibre, and Indian gooseberry explanation had been given where all of these ingredients have been proven as a good carminative. In the Twelfth Chapter, he mentioned various milk preparations, cool drinks, beverages, buttermilk etc. Different types of Panaka (sweet drinks) were prepared out of the main ingredient like raw mango, ripen mango, lemon, Tamarind, and the fruits of Syzygium cumini, which balance taste and health were included. The method of preparation of black gram Soup and green gram soup with their properties and medicinal use was explained in this text. He mentioned the natural colouring agents like saffron, red sandalwood and sprinkling spices like cardamom, clove, camphor, Indian bay leaf, black pepper so on, which are used to add flavours to food and drinks. This review helps to explore the scientific aspect of ayurvedic health drinks and their indication to the modern world. Unhealthy drinks are common in the present time, it is necessary to trace back to ancient classical ayurvedic text which explains healthy nutritious drinks. By adopting these healthy drinks and liquid preparation, we can maintain and enhance human health however further research is needed to confirm this.

  • Open access
  • 24 Reads

Objectives: To analyze the lip and oral cavity (LOC) cancer mortality in relation to chewing tobacco use.

Materials and methods: A correlation study analyzing global trends of the LOC cancer mortality due to chewing tobacco, and the proportion of mortality due to the LOC cancer attributable to chewing tobacco was used.

Results: Among women, the highest proportion of deaths by LOC cancer globally were attributed to chewing tobacco – 27.7% in 2019 (from 21.8% in 1990 ). Among men, the contribution of chewing tobacco to the LOC cancer burden globally has been constant in recent decades (from 13.3% in 1990, to 14.1% in 2019). The percentage of deaths for LOC cancer attributable to chewing tobacco is concentrated in certain world regions, mainly in females in South-east Asia, Africa, Eastern Mediterranean, and Europe, with significantly increasing trends in the last three decades. Except only in Western Pacific region, significatly decreasing trend in the proportion of deaths by LOC cancer in males were observed and were attributed to chewing tobacco in all regions.

Conclusion: Our study noted sex diferences in chewing tobbaco for LOC cancer. Additional analytic epidemiological studies addressing the impact of chewing tobbaco as a risk factor for LOC cancer are needed.

  • Open access
  • 98 Reads
Effect of carbon, nitrogen and salt sources on the growth of Monascus purpureus in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) based culture media.

Monascus is capable of producing different secondary metabolites, such as pigments, monacolin K, and a variety of digestive enzymes. These metabolites show antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering activities; yet, to study such metabolites, it is necessary to evaluate the growth of the fungus as it is a key indicator. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different sources in quinoa flour-based culture media during the growth of M. purpureus. The diameter was evaluated daily until the tenth day and then the increase in radial growth was determined and used to calculate the growth rate (mm/day) by linear regression. The sources were: glucose, fructose, molasses, fish hydrolysate, fermented fish, monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride; at concentrations of 0.5 and 1% (w/v) with variation of pH 5, 6 and 7. To compare the data, a completely randomized statistical design was used with a 7x2x3 factorial arrangement with three replications. The analysis was done by ANOVA, and to determine significant differences between the means the Tukey test was applied (α = 0.05). At the tenth day, the highest value obtained was 72.59 mm with a radial growth rate of 3.629 mm/day, corresponding to the effect of 0.5% (w/v) sodium chloride at pH 6, and the lowest value was 42.05 mm with a radial growth rate of 2.10 mm/day for the effect of 0.5% (w/v) monosodium glutamate at pH 7. From this research, it is deduced that different sources have effects on the development of M. purpureus, and factors such as pH and concentration can also make changes in the morphology of the colonies affecting their growth rate.

  • Open access
  • 187 Reads
Investigation of dried mycelium (Pleurotus eryngii) powder as an alternative protein source for developing meat analogue

Population growth and limited natural resources are driving the demand for alternative dietary proteins. To feed the world's growing population with the same finite resources, the global food supply must be raised. Alternative protein sources, such as fungal "Mycelium," might be regarded as an innovative, sustainable, and safe dietary protein to promote health, lowering carbon footprint, and overcome the hunger problem. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the potential of P. eryngii mycelium species for the development of meat analogues. Mycelium was cultivated in the lab utilizing a submerged fermentation process, followed by cold-pressing (5 kN, 30 s) as a pretreatment to eliminate unbound moisture, lowering drying cost and time by 50-55 percent. To create a dried mycelium powder (for increasing shelf life), the pressed sample was freeze-dried (FD) at -50 °C at 5 mbar pressure. Characterization of FD mycelium powder was performed. The FD mycelium powder was discovered to be high in protein (25%) and fiber (18%), as well as minerals like Fe (8 mg/100g), Zn, Se, Ca, and vitamin D2, which can be used to create a functional meat analogue. The extrusion technology was used to create a low moisture meat analogue (LMMA) with a mycelium and pea protein isolate mixture (30:70) with a favorable expansion ratio (4.14), water/oil absorption capability (2.72 & 1.77 g/g sample), and textural consistency similar to pea protein-based LMMA. The FTIR data revealed well-defined peaks with decreased noise at 1600-1700 cm-1, indicating higher protein concentration without any new peak generation/breakage.

  • Open access
  • 27 Reads
Thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium in alheira sausage batter

Previous studies have highlighted the need to implement better microbiological control and process standardisation during the production of alheiras sausages, in particular during the stage of heat treatment. Alheira is a non-ready-to-eat sausage from Northern Portugal, which although at low prevalence, has shown survivability of Salmonella spp. throughout maturation. The objective of this work was to characterise the heat resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in alheira sausage batter.

Two batches of alheira batter were obtained from a producer and inoculated with a ST overnight culture to reach ~7.0 log CFU/g. Bags containing well-spread 10-g alheira batter were submitted in duplicate to temperatures of 63°, 60°, 57° and 54 °C in an immersion bath, and sampled at 6 different time points. The quantification of ST on XLD plates was performed within two hours of the experiment.

A log-linear primary model fitted to each of the inactivation curves estimated the death rates of ST in alheira batter to be 0.038 (SE=0.008), 0.126 (SE=0.003), 0.273 (SE=0.063) and 2.872 (SE=0.763) log CFU/min at 54 º, 57 º, 60 º and 63 ºC, respectively, with coefficients of determination ranging between 0.914 and 0.987. Through a Bigelow model, the D-value (time needed to reduce ST in 1 log) was modelled as a function of temperature, resulting in a log D* of 2.302 (SE=0.304), corresponding to 200 minutes at 50 ºC to reduce ST in 1 log, and a z-value of 5.016 (SE=0.839) ºC. This model enables the prediction of D values and lethality times at other temperatures. For instance, to reach the 7.0 log reduction lethality of Salmonella spp. sought in sausages, the centre of the alheiras should be kept for 9.0 seconds at 70 °C.

This study characterised for the first time the thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium in a traditional Portuguese sausage, and will be useful to producers for designing and controlling their thermal processes during alheira manufacture.

  • Open access
  • 43 Reads
Bioactive ingredients of custard apple (Annona cherimola Mill.) by-products as an industrial interest for the development of products with high added value

Custard apple (Annona cherimola Mill.) is a tropical fruit source of bioactive compounds whose main producer worldwide is Spain, specifically, Granada. As a consequence of its processing, the food industry generates large amounts of by-products such as peels and seeds, which represent an economic expense and a great environmental impact. These by-products are rich in phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging power. The revaluation of the inedible parts of the custard apple is an ideal option for obtaining bioactive ingredients and their subsequent use by the food and pharmaceutical industry for the development of products with high added value.

The objective of this work is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of cherimoya by-products rich in phenolic compounds for the development of cosmeceuticals. For this, the total content of phenolic compounds was determined from the Folin-Ciocalteu method and their antioxidant capacity was examined by the FRAP, TEAC and ORAC tests. In addition, the ability of custard apple by-product extracts to inhibit HOCl and NO · radicals was evaluated and the inhibition capacity of different enzymes related to skin aging such as hyaluronidase, collagenase, tyrosinase, elastase, xanthine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase was also determined. Finally, the major phenolic compounds present in the custard apple peel and seed samples were characterized by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

The results show that both the peel and seed of custard apple have a strong potential against oxidative stress and inflammation. Its phytochemical profile due to the presence of phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quinic acid, vanillic acid, etc.) and its potential, make both industrial by products attractive bioactive ingredients for the manufacture of functional food and cosmeceuticals fot the health.

  • Open access
  • 38 Reads
Algal-derived hydrocolloids with potential antiviral activity: a mechanistic approach

From a structural point of view, hydrocolloids are characterized as hydrophilic biopolymers with high molecular weight. Hydrocolloids are widely used in food industry, mainly as thickeners, gelling agents, stabilizers of foams and emulsions, and inhibitors of ice and sugar crystals. Additionally, hydrocolloids are being increasingly used as fat replacers, aiming to produce low-calorie foods. Besides these important functional properties in different food products, hydrocolloids are being progressively recognized for their diverse biological properties, including anticoagulant, antithrombic, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulatory effects. Also, some studies have reported that these biopolymers have beneficial effects against a significant number of dermatological problems. Regarding antiviral properties, some hydrocolloids, such as sulfated polysaccharides, exhibit unique structures that exert these effects. This study aims to describe the corresponding underlying mechanisms of this bioactivity. Special attention will be given to the way hydrocolloids may obstruct different phases of the viral life cycle (attachment, penetration, uncoating, biosynthesis, viral assembly, and release) by directly inactivating virions before infection or by inhibiting its replication inside the host cell. The presented information might represent a potential contribution to the discovery and development of new antiviral drugs.

  • Open access
  • 169 Reads
Aquafaba: A Multifunctional Ingredient in Food Production
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Recently, the demand of consumers for plant-based foods to replace mainly meat, egg, and dairy products by mimicking their structure with alternatives in many food applications has grown significantly. This tendency has been driven by many reasons mainly comprised of allergenicity and different dietary preferences of consumers, and sustainability issues. In this regard, aquafaba has a great potential to meet these requests and needs due to not only its nutritional properties but also multi-functionalities such as foaming, emulsifying, gelling, and/or thickening, the ability/capacity of water-, and oil absorption/holding, which allow to use in a wide range of food products. In this regard, aquafaba takes a place in general egg and/or fat replacer, and alternative to emulsifier and gelling agents mainly in baked goods, desserts/confectionery food products, and mayonnaise. Moreover, it gives an opportunity to reduce environmental load, by recycling by-products into value-added food ingredients. Therefore, it is a promising clean-label and eco-friendly ingredient for sustainable food production and a circular economy. However, there are restrictions on the quality standardization of aquafaba and applied food products for industrialization and commercialization, because of several factors affecting the composition of aquafaba. In addition, although some researchers focused on drying aquafaba regarding low aw value and thus increase the shelf life, more studies are needed for the optimization of different drying methods and process parameters for industrialization, as well. Moreover, although the amount and activity of the anti-nutritional compound of aquafaba are generally lower than raw seeds, more studies should affirm this issue. Future studies should also head for the application of aquafaba to more food products and its effects on the quality of end products, even regarding gluten-free and non-dairy food products.