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Effective corrosion inhibition of mild steel in an acidic environment using an aqueous extract of macadamia nut green peel biowaste
* 1 , 2
1  Chemistry and Physics Department, College of Natural and Applied Science, Sokoine university of agriculture
2  Department of Water Resources, Water Institute, P.O Box 35059, Dar es Salaam Tanzania
Academic Editor: Nunzio Cennamo


Improving the corrosion resistance of mild steel in an acidic aqueous environment is an important industrial consideration due to the use of acids for descaling and cleaning. The application of corrosion inhibitors is one of the most effective, simple and economical means of protecting metals against corrosion. Plant-derived compounds have recently gained attention due to their low cost, non-toxic, and environmentally friendly properties. Biowastes are recognized as a potential cheap source of green corrosion inhibitors, and their use can help reduce the wastes discharged to the environment. Green peel biowaste (GPBW) generated from macadamia nut processing is typically dumped into the environment, posing a disposal concern. This research, we investigated the use of GPBW as a source of useful organic compounds with green chemistry attributes for mild steel corrosion inhibition in an acidic solution (2 M HCl) using gasometric and optical methods. Results showed that mild steel corrosion rates decreased as extract concentrations increased. As a result, mild steel corrosion inhibition increased with increasing inhibitor concentration and reached a peak value of 81% at 0.5 g/L extract concentration. The optical images showed that the inhibitor molecules adsorb on the metal surface to form a protective film that isolates the mild steel from the corrosive solution. The adsorption of inhibitor molecules on the mild steel surface followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating the formation of a monolayer film with a homogeneous distribution of adsorbed molecules. A Gibbs free energy (G°ads) of 24 kJ/mol indicated the inhibition process is mainly characterized by physical adsorption. The results of this study suggest that aqueous GPBW extract could serve as an inexpensive, non-toxic, and renewable corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in acidic solutions.

Keywords: Corrosion inhibition, Macadamia green peels, Biowastes, Green chemistry, Mild steel, Acidic solution