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Techniques to expand the exit pupil of Maxwellian display: A review
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1  CSIR - Central Scientific Instruments Organization, Sector 30C, Chandigarh, 160030, India
2  Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India
Academic Editor: VIJAYAKUMAR ANAND

Published: 06 March 2023 by MDPI in Holography Meets Advanced Manufacturing session Holography 1
Abstract:

The near-eye display (NED) devices are required to provide visual instructions in the fields of education, navigation, military operations, construction, healthcare, etc. The issues with conventional NEDs are the vergence-accommodation conflict (VAC) and form factor. The Maxwellian display alleviates the VAC in NEDs by providing always-focused images to the viewer regardless of the depth of focus of the human eye. The main limitation of the Maxwellian display has a limited exit pupil size. Due to misalignment of the device or eyeball rotation, the user may miss the eye box, and the image will become lost. To mitigate this limitation, exit pupil expansion can be obtained either statically or dynamically. This paper reviews the various techniques employed to expand the exit pupil. The review includes the principle, advantages, and drawbacks of various techniques for expanding the exit pupil of the Maxwellian display. The structure of the paper starts with an introduction and the principle of the Maxwellian display, followed by a discussion of the main limitations that arise with various techniques, along with potential solutions.

Keywords: Maxwellian display; exit pupil; near-eye display, Retina scan display; AR/VR display
Comments on this paper
Viola Case
VAC is the result of a disruption in the usual coordination between the accommodation of the lens and the convergence (vergence) of the eyes in the visual system. Conventional NEDs may not always focus pictures at the proper depth, which can cause pain and visual fatigue for the user. doodle jump

Techno profiles
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Jim Burnham
Would this be useful for newer version of outdoor VR glasses, similar to ones Apple released? Could imagine it would allow a lot more eye relief while walking/running(maybe can even conntect it to fit band/fit watch while running. Would love to have more exact data, just got into running few months ago, picked up a new pair of Hoka shoes just now :D )

Jim Burnham
Would this be useful for newer version of outdoor VR glasses, similar to ones Apple released? Could imagine it would allow a lot more eye relief while walking/running(maybe can even conntect it to fit band/fit watch while running. Would love to have more exact data, just got into running few months ago, picked up a new pair of Hoka shoes just now :D )

Nisha Jha
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Basroal teela
Form factor and vergence-accommodation conflict (VAC geometry dash subzero) are drawbacks of conventional NEDs. The Maxwellian display mitigates the VAC in NEDs by supplying the viewer with consistently focused images, irrespective of the human eye's depth of focus. The primary drawback of the Maxwellian display is its restricted pupil size at the exit.
Nadia Eira
I clearly see the research and diligence you have putcookie clicker 2 into this article. I like your way of expressing it, it's very easy to understand.

Wandataylor Taylor
One technique to expand the exit pupil of a Maxwellian display involves using a microlens array to project multiple overlapping images, thereby increasing the effective viewing area.
Another method is to employ diffractive optical elements, which can manipulate light paths and create a larger online automaty za peníze na Hravelka uniform exit pupil without significantly increasing the display's physical size.
Utilizing waveguides with embedded holographic structures can also help expand the exit pupil by directing and expanding light beams across a wider area.
Additionally, integrating freeform optics into the display system allows for customized light shaping, ensuring a broader and more accessible exit pupil for enhanced user experience.
Wandataylor Taylor
One technique to expand online automaty za peníze na Hravelka the exit pupil of a Maxwellian display involves using a microlens array to project multiple overlapping images, thereby increasing the effective viewing area.
Another method is to employ diffractive optical elements, which can manipulate light paths and create a larger, uniform exit pupil without significantly increasing the display's physical size.




 
 
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