LIVER CANCER IN CHILDREN- A REVIEW
- N.Charan Raj, Dr .ch .ananda kumar, Dr .D.mohanty , Dr. A.madhu babu and Dr . B.vasudha bakshi.
School of Pharmacy, Anurag Group of Institutions,(formerly cvsr college of engeneering)
Venkatapur,Ghatkesar,Medchal Dist-500038, Telangana.
It is unclear exactly what causes liver cancer, but researchers know that it develops due to mutations in liver cells. These cells grow without the usual regulation that tells liver cells when to replicate and when to stop replicating. When cells replicate without regulation, they can become a tumor. Some children are diagnosed with hepatoblastoma so young that scientists believe the cancer starts before the children are born. Hepatocellular Carcinoma is seen more frequently in areas of the world that have high rates of hepatitis. Infection with any one of several viruses that cause hepatitis is believed to be responsible. Only a few risk factors for hepatoblastoma are known for sure. Children with some genetic syndromes are more likely to develop hepatoblastoma than other children. Babies with low birth weights (less than 1,500 grams or about 3 1/2 pounds at birth) have a much higher risk of hepatoblastoma compared to normal weight babies. Smaller than average babies (3 pounds 5 ounces – 5 pounds 8 ounces) have a slightly increased risk of developing hepatoblastoma. The reasons for the high risk associated with lower birth weights are not clear. Most children who are born with low birth weight never develop hepatoblastoma. HCC is more common in males compared to females. Hepatitis B virus passed from mother at childbirth is a HCC risk factor. Other risk factors for HCC include inherited metabolic disorders such as hereditary tyrosinemia, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, disorders that lead to bile accumulation in the liver (such as Alagille syndrome) and glycogen storage disease. Obesity, hereditary hemochromatosis (too much iron accumulation in the body) and Wilson’s disease (too much copper accumulation) can also lead to liver damage and HCC.