The entropy of the observable universe has been calculated as Suni ~ 10104 k and is dominated by the entropy of super massive black holes. Irreversible processes in the universe can only happen if there is an entropy gap between the entropy of the observable universe Suni and its maximum entropy Smax: = Smax - Suni. Thus, the entropy gap is a measure of the remaining potentially available free energy in the observable universe. To compute one needs to know the value of Smax. There is no consensus on whether Smax is a constant or is time-dependent. A time-dependent Smax(t) has been used to represent instantaneous upper limits on entropy growth. However, if we define Smax as a constant equal to the final entropy of the observable universe at its heat death: Smax Smax,HD, we can interpret T as a measure of the remaining potentially available (but not instantaneously available) free energy of the observable universe. The time-dependent slope dSuni/dt (t) then becomes the best estimate of current entropy-production and T dSuni/dt(t) is the upper limit to free energy extraction.
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Entropy Production and the Maximum Entropy of the Universe
Published: 17 November 2019 by MDPI in 5th International Electronic Conference on Entropy and Its Applications session Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Black Holes
Keywords: entropy; maximum; cosmology;