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Carbon Dots and Fluorescein: The Ideal FRET Pair for the Fabrication of a Precise and Fully Reversible Ammonia Sensor
Chao-Peng Hsu 1 , Zahralsaadat Hejazi 1 , Efe Armagan, 1 Shanyu Zhao 2 , Michel Schmid 1 , Haijiang Zhang 1 , Huizhang Guo, 3 Lukas Weidenbacher 4 , René M. Rossi 1 , Matthias M. Koebel, 2 Luciano F. Boesel 1 , Claudio Toncelli 1
1  Laboratory for Biomimetic Membranes and Textiles, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
2  Laboratory for Building Energy Materials and Components, Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science & Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
3  Institute for Building Materials, ETH Zürich, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 3, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland;;; Applied Wood Materials, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science & Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
4  Laboratory for Biomimetic Membranes and Textiles, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland;;; Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Institute for Biomechanics, ETH Zürich, Hoenggerbergring 64, CH-8049 Zürich, Switzerland

Published: 07 August 2017 by MDPI in Proceedings
MDPI, Volume 1; 10.3390/proceedings1040488
Abstract: Monitoring of ammonia in the human breath is of paramount importance to monitor diseases link to liver and kidney mulfunctioning. The present paper describes a solid-state optical ammonia sensor based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between narrowly dispersed blue-emitting carbon nanodots (CNDs) as FRET donor and fluorescein as FRET acceptor. The fluorophores were physically entrapped in a close to superhydrophobic sol-gel matrix, in turn deposited on a PVDF-HFP electrospun fiber membrane. The sensor shows a linear calibration with a remarkably low limit of detection, i.e., 110 ppb, and adequate reproducibility up to six N2/NH3 cycles.
Keywords: Ammonia sensor, carbon dots, Frster resonance energy transfer
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