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Saifullah Khan   Dr.  Manager 
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Saifullah Khan published an article in October 2017.
Top co-authors
Larry W. Mays

44 shared publications

Professor, School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ 85257-5306 (corresponding author)

Xaio Yun Zheng

9 shared publications

Yunnan Academy of Social Sciences, Kunming 650000, China

Georgios P. Antoniou

7 shared publications

Ioannou Soutsou 44, 11474 Athens, Greece

Eleni Kanetaki

1 shared publications

Franz Fardin

1 shared publications

Publication Record
Distribution of Articles published per year 

Total number of journals
published in
Article 3 Reads 0 Citations Evapotranspiration Distribution and Variation of Pakistan (1931-2015) Saifullah Khan, Mahmood Ul Hasan Published: 01 October 2017
Annals of Valahia University of Targoviste, Geographical Series, doi: 10.1515/avutgs-2017-0017
DOI See at publisher website ABS Show/hide abstract
Evapotranspiration is the main element of aridity and desertification and to balance the natural hydrological processes. Pakistan has a high degree of evapotranspiration, as it is in subtropical belt, with long sunshine duration and low cloudiness in summers. June is the warmest month, when the evapotranspiration exceeds 7mm (0.28inches), whereas, January is the coldest month, when evapotranspiration of the country falls to 1mm (0.04inches). The maximum evapotranspiration has been recorded at the southern latitudes of the country (Hyderabad and Jacobabad), while it decreases towards northwest (mountainous region) and Gilgit-Baltistan (Astore and Skardu). This variation in evapotranspiration is due to fluctuation in temperature, precipitation, sunshine duration, wind speed, relative humidity, physical relief and latitudinal as well as altitudinal extend of the country. The average evapotranspiration of Pakistan is 4.5mm with an increase of 1.0mm during 1931-2015. In winter and summer season, the lower Indus basin, has recorded high evapotranspiration as compared to the northern mountainous region. The average evapotranspiration of Pakistan during winter season is 2.7mm, while in summer it is 6.3mm. This variation is due to the variation in the length of day and night, humidity, precipitation, surface pressure, wind speed, and topography of the land. During cold season the average evapotranspiration of the country is 13.7mm, pre-monsoon season 17.1mm, monsoon season 15.8mm and post monsoon season 8mm. Obviously, the highest evapotranspiration of Pakistan has recorded during pre-monsoon season with extreme temperature, scarce precipitation, long sunshine duration, lowest relative humidity, low pressure, and calm winds and chilly condition. Furthermore, during cold (0.1mm), pre-monsoon (3.5mm), and monsoon season (2.2mm) the evapotranspiration shows an increase, where as it reveals a negative deviation of -5.6mm in post monsoon season due to increase in the precipitation from reversible monsoon lows at the southern latitudes of the country. Generally, the evapotranspiration of Pakistan increases from northwest to southeast and a main agent of delimitation of the arid region of the country. The main factors that cause variation in the evapotranspiration of the country from south towards north are temperature, precipitation, sunshine duration, relative humidity, surface pressure, wind speed, fogs, cloudiness, topography, latitudinal and altitudinal extend of the country that required further research.
BOOK-CHAPTER 0 Reads 0 Citations Chapter 25 Historical Development of Qanāts: Underground Aqueducts in Pakistan Saifullah Khan, Mahmood-Ul- Hasan, Muhammad Ishaque Fani, An... Published: 25 November 2016
Underground Aqueducts Handbook, doi: 10.1201/9781315368566-26
DOI See at publisher website
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Evolution of Toilets Worldwide through the Millennia Georgios P. Antoniou, Giovanni De Feo, Franz Fardin, Aldo Ta... Published: 13 August 2016
Sustainability, doi: 10.3390/su8080779
DOI See at publisher website ABS Show/hide abstract
Throughout history, various civilizations developed methodologies for the collection and disposal of human waste. The methodologies throughout the centuries have been characterized by technological peaks on the one hand, and by the disappearance of the technologies and their reappearance on the other. The purpose of this article is to trace the development of sewage collection and transport with an emphasis on toilets in ancient civilizations. Evolution of the major achievements in the scientific fields of sanitation with emphasis on the lavatory (or toilets) technologies through the centuries up to the present are presented. Valuable insights into ancient wastewater technologies and management with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability are provided. Gradual steps improved the engineering results until the establishment of the contemporary toilet system, which provides a combined solution for flushing, odor control, and the sanitation of sewerage. Even though the lack of proper toilet facilities for a great percentage of the present day global population is an embarrassing fact, the worldwide efforts through millennia for the acquisition of a well-engineered toilet were connected to the cultural level of each period.