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Raquel Nieto   Professor  Senior Scientist or Principal Investigator 
UVIGO – University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain.
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Raquel Nieto published an article in May 2018.
Research Keywords & Expertise
0 Climatology
0 Evaporation
0 Humidity
0 Meteorology
0 Transport of Moisture
Top co-authors See all
Milica Stojanovic

142 shared publications

Luis Gimeno

81 shared publications

J. F. Aguilera

39 shared publications

N. Calvo

25 shared publications

Universidad Complutense

Publication Record
Distribution of Articles published per year 
(2002 - 2018)
Total number of journals
published in
Publications See all
Article 3 Reads 1 Citation A Lagrangian analysis of the moisture budget over the Fertile Crescent during two intense drought episodes Zeinab Salah, Raquel Nieto, Anita Drumond, Luis Gimeno, Serg... Published: 01 May 2018
Journal of Hydrology, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.03.021
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The Fertile Crescent (FC) region comprises the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The FC suffered two severe drought episodes separated by a 7-year period, in 1998 – 2000 and 2007 – 2009, which are considered the most severe episodes to hit the region in the last 50 years. A Lagrangian model (FLEXPART) and ERA-Interim data (with a 1°x1° lat-long resolution) were used to identify for the first time the climatological sources of moisture for the FC and their characteristics. Variability and the source-receptor relationships, concerning their contribution to the precipitation, and the implications regarding the transport of moisture changes over the FC, during the wet season (October-May) from 1980 – 2014 were analysed. The main climatological moisture sources during this period were determined to be the FC itself, the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the central and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea. The analysis showed higher anomalous conditions in the moisture transport from some moisture sources during the two outstanding drought episodes. The key feature of the wet seasons during these episodes was a deficit in the moisture losses over the studied area related to the FC itself, the Red and Arabian Seas sources, followed and to a lesser extent by the eastern Mediterranean Sea over the northern part of the FC region. Nevertheless, the moisture supply deficit from the sources was much greater during the 2007 – 2009 drought event. The SPEI index at large scales (24 months) showed that the 2007 – 2009 episode was part of longer-term drought conditions that had been developing over the previous months, reinforcing the drought severity given recycling processes attributed to the FC. During the two extreme drought episodes, the mountainous terrain over the northern and eastern FC suffered the highest precipitation deficits, and these areas are, precisely, the most influenced by two of the major moisture sources, namely, the FC and eastern Mediterranean Sea. The decreased moisture contribution from these main sources led to more intense droughts over the region. As a result, both regions should be considered as hotspots to signal severe or extreme droughts in the region.
Article 2 Reads 0 Citations The perfect pattern of moisture transport for precipitation for Arctic sea ice melting Luis Gimeno-Sotelo, Raquel Nieto, Marta Vázquez, Luis Gimeno Published: 20 December 2017
Earth System Dynamics Discussions, doi: 10.5194/esd-2017-122
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We have identified the patterns of moisture transport for precipitation over the Arctic region, the Arctic Ocean, and its 13 main subdomains, which better fit with sea ice decline. For this purpose, we studied the different patterns of moisture transport for the case of high/low Arctic sea ice (ASI) extension linked to periods before/after the main change point (CP) in the extension of sea ice. The pattern consists of a general decrease in moisture transport in summer and enhanced moisture transport in autumn and early winter, with different contributions depending on the moisture source and ocean subregion. The pattern is not only statistically significant but also consistent with Eulerian fluxes diagnosis, changes in the frequency of circulation types, and known mechanisms of the effects of snowfall or rainfall on ice in the Arctic. The results of this paper also reveal that the assumed and partially documented enhanced poleward moisture transport from lower latitudes as a consequence of increased moisture from climate change seems to be less simple and constant than typically recognized in relation to enhanced Arctic precipitation throughout the year in the present climate.
Article 1 Read 1 Citation The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins Rogert Sorí, Raquel Nieto, Anita Drumond, Sergio M. Vicente-... Published: 15 December 2017
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, doi: 10.5194/hess-21-6379-2017
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The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins (IRB, GRB, and BRB respectively) in the South Asian region was investigated. The 3-dimensional model FLEXPART v9.0 was utilized. An important advantage of this model is that it permits the computation of the freshwater budget on air parcel trajectories both backward and forward in time from 0.1 to 1000hPa in the atmospheric vertical column. The analysis was conducted for the westerly precipitation regime (WPR) (November–April) and the monsoonal precipitation regime (MPR) (May–October) in the period from 1981 to 2015. The main terrestrial and oceanic climatological moisture sources for the IRB, GRB, and BRB and their contribution to precipitation over the basins were identified. For the three basins, the most important moisture sources for precipitation are (i) in the continental regions, the land masses to the west of the basins (in this case called western Asia), the Indian region (IR), and the basin itself, and (ii) from the ocean, the utmost sources being the Indian Ocean (IO) and the Bay of Bengal (BB), and it is remarkable that despite the amount of moisture reaching the Indus and Ganges basins from land sources, the moisture supply from the IO seems to be first associated with the rapid increase or decrease in precipitation over the sources in the MPR. The technique of the composites was used to analyse how the moisture uptake values spatially vary from the sources (the budget of evaporation minus precipitation (E − P) was computed in a backward experiment from the basins) but during the pre-onset and pre-demise dates of the monsoonal rainfall over each basin; this confirmed that over the last days of the monsoon at the basins, the moisture uptake areas decrease in the IO. The Indian region, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the basins themselves are the main sources of moisture responsible for negative (positive) anomalies of moisture contribution to the basins during composites of driest (wettest) WPR and MPR.
CONFERENCE-ARTICLE 6 Reads 0 Citations Moisture transport related to the ENSO effects in the Mexican precipitation Ana Melgarejo, Paulina Ordoñez, Raquel Nieto, Luis Gimeno, P... Published: 11 November 2017
First International Electronic Conference on the Hydrological Cycle, doi: 10.3390/CHyCle-2017-04884
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In the past, several works addressed the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Mexican precipitation by using relative scarce observations of the National Weather Service of Mexico or reanalysis data. In this work, we reassessed the ENSO signal in Mexican rainfall by using four precipitation databases (CHIRPS, GPCC, GPCP and CMAP) over a 34-yr period (1981-2014) and three different ENSO indices. Results obtained with different datasets are consistent among them and with previous studies, showing strong positive precipitation anomalies along the winter over the northern Mexico for El Niño events. In contrast, during the summer, negative rainfall anomalies can be found over most of central and southern Mexico, being stronger in August. During La Niña years, the anomalies show approximately the opposite pattern to those observed during El Niño.

A Lagrangian approach is used to track the evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) along trajectories followed by the atmospheric particles that will take precipitable water to the areas with a precipitation amount modulated by ENSO phases. Then, composites of the obtained (E-P) fields are examined for the strong phases of El Niño and La Niña. Finally, the synoptic conditions associated with ENSO-related anomalous atmospheric water vapor fluxes are studied for a better understanding of the origin of the ENSO impact on the Mexican precipitation.

CONFERENCE-ARTICLE 10 Reads 0 Citations <strong>Patterns of atmospheric moisture transport linked to Southern Ocean Sea ice coverage changes</strong> Raquel Nieto, Rosmeri da Rocha, Luis Gimeno-Sotelo, Marta Vá... Published: 10 November 2017
Proceedings of First International Electronic Conference on the Hydrological Cycle, doi: 10.3390/CHyCle-2017-04877
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Moisture sources identification and Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) were calculated for the period 1980-2016 for the Southern Ocean Sea. Five sectors of the Southern Ocean Sea (King Hakon VII, East Antarctic, Ross/Amundsen, Amundsen and Bellingshausen, Weddell) were selected to calculate their moisture sources. The results show that the most important moisture sources (calculated as positive values of Evaporation minus Precipitation, E-P>0) for these five seas come from extratropical latitudes in the storm track trajectories. The main moisture sources and affected regional seas are: Southern Australia (SAUS) moisture source which affect mainly Ross/Amundsen and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas; the Atlantic Ocean is the main source of moisture for Weddell and King Hakon VII; and the Pacific Ocean provides moisture to Ross/Amundsen, Weddell and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas. For most of these seas it was identified positive trends of E-P>0 anomalies, while negative trends were identified only for the SAUS moisture source to Amundsen and Bellingshausen Sea. In terms of SIC, for the whole Antarctic the total anomalies are increasing, but no breaking points in this time serie were detected. Preliminary results also indicate some areas, which do not coincide exactly with the limit of the regional seas, where the increase of Sea Ice Extension (SIE) is statistically significant.

CONFERENCE-ARTICLE 5 Reads 0 Citations <span>The Mediterranean moisture supply in the genesis of climatological and extreme monthly continental precipitation</... Danica Ciric, Raquel Nieto, Lucia Losada, Anita Drumond, Lui... Published: 06 November 2017
First International Electronic Conference on the Hydrological Cycle, doi: 10.3390/CHyCle-2017-04847
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The moisture transport from its sources to the continents is one of the most relevant topics in the hydrology, and its role in extremes events is crucial to understand several processes in the Earth, as intense precipitations and/or flooding. Using the global precipitation (P) dataset from the Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP) from 1980 to 2015 with a 3-hourly temporal and 0.25° spatial resolution, a monthly precipitation climatology were done over the area of the Mediterranean Sea, checking grid by grid which year exhibits the maximum precipitation. As is well known, the Mediterranean Basin is a clear source of moisture for the surrounding areas. To link this source of moisture with the precipitation, in this work we have made use of the Lagrangian dispersion model FLEXPART to track, in its forward mode, those particles that monthly leave the Mediterranean Basin and we have calculated the loss of moisture (E-P<0) modelled by FLEXPART (P-FLEX) over the continental region. The aim of this study is to calculate the monthly climatological percentage of the Mediterranean contribution grid by grid, and the changes of this contribution for extreme monthly precipitation checking the importance of this sea source of moisture during the maximum peak of precipitation.