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Audrey Mayer published an article in June 2018.
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Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Using annual Landsat imagery to identify harvesting over a range of intensities for non-industrial family forests Published: 01 June 2018
Landscape and Urban Planning, doi: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2018.04.012
The monitoring of forested landscapes dominated by many small private forest owners is difficult or not possible without spatially explicit and up-to-date information on land cover change. Analysis of time series multispectral data from the Landsat series of satellites have the spatial and temporal characteristics required to detect sub-hectare and non-stand replacing harvest events over large areas. We identified harvests that occurred in six western upper Michigan counties from 1985 to 2011 using Landsat best available pixel (BAP) image composites and the Composite2Change (C2C) approach. We detected a total of 7071 harvesting events with size ranging from 0.5 to 171.36 ha and average size of 6.42 ha, and analyzed their temporal trajectory. To gain confidence in our harvest mapping, we compared our findings to the overlapping decade of Global Forest Watch (GFW) data. Agreement between the datasets was high, with 94.24% of the C2C and GFW harvest pixels identified with the same change year and improving to 98.74% within ±1 year. This automated harvest detection system, which can capture small and otherwise missed harvests, is valuable to natural resource agencies responsible for monitoring and compliance with regulations over large areas, and researchers requiring estimates of harvest levels and the nature of forest cover status and trends on family forests.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Uncovering Discursive Framings of the Bangladesh Shipbreaking Industry Published: 19 January 2018
Social Sciences, doi: 10.3390/socsci7010014
Shipbreaking in the Chittagong region of Bangladesh supplies metal to meet the needs of the nation’s construction sector. The shipbreaking industry has received international attention for environmental contamination and workers’ insecurity. However, these issues have been framed without considering the actors that produce them and their associated motives. This paper illuminates the conflicting discourses regarding the industry between two divergent groups of actors. On the one hand, national and international NGOs collaborate to enforce a discourse focused on negative localized impacts. On the other hand, yard owners, yard workers, and local community members forge a counter discourse, focused on positive localized impacts and raising doubts about the origin of the environmental pollutants and occupational standards setting. National and international actors have so far missed the conflicting perspective of workers, yard owners, locals and NGOs. We contend that these divergent discourses involve scalar politics, with one discursive frame focused on localized impacts in order to leverage global resources, while the other situates local communities in the global world system; this confounding of scale leads to ineffective policy formulation. This shipbreaking case study provides a valuable lesson on the importance of listening to and including stakeholders at multiple scales when seeking policies to address localized impacts of a globalized industry.
Article 0 Reads 2 Citations Policy compliance recommendations for international shipbreaking treaties for Bangladesh Published: 01 November 2016
Marine Policy, doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2016.07.012
Article 0 Reads 1 Citation Life cycle assessment of steel in the ship recycling industry in Bangladesh Published: 01 November 2016
Journal of Cleaner Production, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.07.014
The ship recycling industry in Bangladesh provides necessary scrap metal for domestic steel products, such as rebar for construction. These recycled products may represent a dramatic reduction in energy consumption and ecological footprint when compared to production from virgin iron ore. A life cycle assessment approach is used to evaluate energy use and emissions, from when the ships is transported from the originating country for dismantling of retired ships in Chittagong, to the end recyclers (rerolling mills and light engineering shops) in Dhaka. The secondary rebar produced from the scraps saves 16.5 GJ of primary energy per ton of rebar and 1965 kg of CO2eq greenhouse gas emissions per ton of rebar when compared to primary rebar. This study compared different unit operations of steel scrap processing to assess their relative environmental impacts, including Global Warming Potential (GWP), resource use in terms of MJ primary energy, human health, and ecosystem quality. Although it is considered sustainable in terms of energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions reduction, ship recycling has other adverse impacts on humans and the environment, as indicated by the other impact assessment metrics.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Use of a participatory approach to develop a regional assessment tool for bioenergy production Published: 01 November 2016
Biomass and Bioenergy, doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2016.08.001
Article 1 Read 2 Citations Hybridization, agency discretion, and implementation of the US Endangered Species Act Published: 25 October 2016
Conservation Biology, doi: 10.1111/cobi.12747
The United States (US) Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires that the “best available scientific and commercial data” be used to protect imperiled species from extinction and preserve biodiversity. However, it does not provide specific guidance on how to apply this mandate. Scientific data can be uncertain and controversial, particularly regarding species delineation and hybridization issues. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) had an evolving Hybrid Policy to guide protection decisions for individuals of hybrid origin; however at present it is in limbo due to conservation controversies caused by the policy. FWS biologists must interpret and apply the best available science to their recommendations, and likely use considerable discretion in making recommendations for what species to list, how to define those species, and how to recover them. We used semi-structured interviews to collect data on FWS biologists’ use of discretion to make recommendations for listed species with hybridization issues. These biologists have a large amount of discretion to determine the best available science and how to interpret it, but generally defer to the scientific consensus on the taxonomic status of an organism. Hybridization was viewed primarily as a problem in the context of the ESA, although biologists who had experience with hybridization issues were more likely to describe it in more nuanced terms. Many interviewees expressed a desire to continue the current case-by-case approach for handling hybridization issues, but some would appreciate more guidance on procedures (a “flexible” hybrid policy). Field level information can provide critical insight into which policies are working (or not working) and why. FWS biologists’ high level of discretion and its impact on ESA implementation fits the “street level bureaucrat” model offering a new case study for this area of research.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved