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(2006 - 2016)
(2006 - 2016)
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Article 2 Reads 1 Citation Influence of Composition on the Environmental Impact of a Cast Aluminum Alloy Published: 25 May 2016
Materials, doi: 10.3390/ma9060412
The influence of alloy composition on the environmental impact of the production of six aluminum casting alloys (Al Si12Cu1(Fe), Al Si5Mg, Al Si9Cu3Zn3Fe, Al Si10Mg(Fe), Al Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) and Al Si9) has been analyzed. In order to perform a more precise environmental impact calculation, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with ReCiPe Endpoint methodology has been used, with the EcoInvent v3 AlMg3 aluminum alloy dataset as a reference. This dataset has been updated with the material composition ranges of the mentioned alloys. The balanced, maximum and minimum environmental impact values have been obtained. In general, the overall impact of the studied aluminum alloys varies from 5.98 × 10−1 pts to 1.09 pts per kg, depending on the alloy composition. In the analysis of maximum and minimum environmental impact, the alloy that has the highest uncertainty is AlSi9Cu3(Fe)(Zn), with a range of ±9%. The elements that contribute the most to increase its impact are Copper and Tin. The environmental impact of a specific case, an LED luminaire housing made out of an Al Si12Cu1(Fe) cast alloy, has been studied, showing the importance of considering the composition. Significant differences with the standard datasets that are currently available in EcoInvent v3 have been found.
Article 1 Read 1 Citation Adequacy of Technical and Commercial Alternatives Applied to Machine Tool Verification Using Laser Tracker Published: 07 April 2016
Applied Sciences, doi: 10.3390/app6040100
Besides presenting a volumetric verification technique that allows characterization of the different geometric errors of a machine tool (MT) depending on its kinematic chain and geometry through a kinematic model, this paper investigates the influence of measurement tools and techniques available on the final accuracy of the MT. Volumetric verification based on a laser tracker (LT) relates the coordinates of the tool with the coordinates of the LT, including it into the kinematic model. Using a non-lineal optimization process, approximation functions that characterize the joint influence of MT geometric errors are obtained. However, measurement data will be affected by previous compensation of the MT, the accuracy of the measurement system, LT measurement technology, the type of retroreflector used, and techniques used to improve data accuracy, among other sources of errors. This paper studies the adequacy of different commercial alternatives such as: retroreflectors, LTs from different manufacturers, etc., that can be applied in MT verification using a long-range MT. As the accuracy is strongly affected by the uncertainty of its angular encoders, the multilateration technique tries to improve data accuracy using only LT radial information. Nonetheless, a new bundle adjustment which uses radial and angular information is presented in current metrology software. This paper studies both techniques and analyzes their adequacy for MT verification too.
CONFERENCE-ARTICLE 1 Read 0 Citations Environmental Assessment Design Tool Specially Developed for Mechanical Engineering Students Published: 17 November 2014
The 4th World Sustainability Forum, doi: 10.3390/wsf-4-h004
Over the last two decades, the environmental conscience has been steadily growing. Nowadays a wide range of companies have started to measure the environmental impact of their products performing Life Cycle Assessment in order to reduce it and contribute to sustainable growing. This environmental awareness has also influenced legislation, for example, the European Union has devoted several laws to introduce ecodesign measures in energy-using and energy-related products. However, although most industrial products (TVs, computers, cars...) are designed and developed by engineers, most of them have not received environmental training in their university studies. In order to teach environmental design concepts to mechanical engineering undergraduates, an environmental impact assessment tool has been created. In this paper the ECOCAD software is shown, as commercially LCA software is not prepared to be used by untrained users. ECOCAD allows students to easily analyze the influence of design decisions on the environmental impact of a component, allowing them to compare different materials (steel, aluminum, plastics... each one with different Young Modules and elastic admissible strains), calculating how the safety coefficient changes depending on the loading conditions. Also the environmental impact of manufacturing processes (stamping, plastic injection, thermoforming, die cast, extrusion....), transportation from suppliers, and to the final customers (truck, train, freight ship...), and end-of-life treatments (recycling, incineration, land-filling...) can be taken into account, allowing the students to fully understand how design decisions influence the environmental impact of a product and compare design alternatives.
CONFERENCE-ARTICLE 2 Reads 0 Citations Sensitivity Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Polymer Injection Molding Process Published: 31 October 2014
The 4th World Sustainability Forum, doi: 10.3390/wsf-4-d007
During the last decades the environmental concern of society has experienced an increase. Specific tools like the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and software and databases to apply this method have been developed to calculate the environmental burden of products or processes very diverse. Global plastics production rose to 288 million tonnes in 2012. Among the different ways of plastics processing the injection molding process is one of the most used in the industry worldwide. In this paper an analysis of the influence of the polymer in the environmental impact of the injection molding process has been carried out. In order to perform this study, the EcoInvent database inventory considered and the data from which this database is obtained for this process have been studied. In general, when a LCA of a product is carried out, databases such EcoInvent, where materials, processes and transports are characterized providing average values, are used. This approach can be good enough for some cases but in order to assess a specific process, like the injection molding process, a further level of detail is needed. This study shows how the final results of environmental impact differ significantly when modifying the generic dataset's values, using the PVC's, PP's or PET's original report data or more updated values. This aspect suggest the necessity of studying, in a more precise way, this process to evaluate its environmental burden correctly so the priority areas can be properly identified and thereby actions to develop a more sustainable way of manufacturing can be determined.
CONFERENCE-ARTICLE 4 Reads 0 Citations LCA Software for Engineering Training on Product Development Published: 31 October 2014
Proceedings of The 4th World Sustainability Forum, doi: 10.3390/wsf-4-h003
Environmental conscience has been growing gradually in recent decades. The market is demanding ecological actions over the products, and legislation is introducing ecodesign measures in products. Because of that, ecodesign is becoming an important discipline in engineering, to take into account the environmental impact of the product during its development, performing Life Cycle Assessment, but it is not still a common discipline in engineering. Training focused on LCA for product development is essential to introduce ecodesign between engineering students, who are not used to work with environmental concepts. The best tool for this training is LCA software to learn through the practice how to calculate the environmental impact of a design, and how this results can be used to improve their designs from an ecological point of view. This work presents the ECOTOOL, software designed to train engineers in LCA methodology. Current existing LCA software are not prepared to be used by untrained engineers, sometimes because they are difficult to be used due to large databases and the complex working environment, and sometimes they are extremely simplified, not sensitive to design modifications. ECOTOOL allows complete LCA performing with a working environment similar to other engineering tools, like professional CAD software, well known by engineers. It is provided with reduced databases, training helps, simplified results and an intuitive working environment to allow students to easily analyze the environmental impact of their designs and apply design actions to optimize it, at the same time they learn the concepts of LCA methodology. Comments to the editor: Thank you for your kind review. The claim that 'the market is demanding ecological actions' will be explained and justified in the paper, as there are links between European legislation and the environmental conscience in Europe. The expression "appropriate training" has been modified in the abstract to avoid misunderstandings. With “appropriate” we intended to mean that the training should be focused on environmental impact assessment for product development, and not just focused on environmental impact assessment in a scientific context, talking only about the calculation and the scientifically basis. For us, it is very important to focus the training in this discipline into a practical application, which is the product development, so products could be improved from an ecological point of view thanks to environmental impact assessment during the design process.
Article 2 Reads 0 Citations Influence of the Processing Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of PA 6 - Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites for In... Published: 01 January 2012
Advanced Materials Research, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/amr.445.313
Nowadays polymer based nanocomposites are very interesting to manufacture products of less weight and higher mechanical properties and specific performance depending on the morphology of nanoscaled reinforcement. Most of these potential improvements are focused to the challenges newer products require like HEV (hybrid or electrical vehicles) for example. The development of these new products requires the full characterization of the rheological and mechanical behavior of the materials and the correct preparation of the raw material for further processing. As an example two nanocomposite blends were prepared letting down a masterbach of PA6+30% HNT (Halloysite nanotubes) to 3% and 6% of HNT content in a PA6 matrix of (BADADUR). The letting down process was developed in an extrusion-compounding machine (COPERION ZSK 26) and the rheological behavior was determined in a capillar rheometer obtaining the viscosity curves of the material needed for injection molding simulation. The products obtained were used for injection molding of test specimens in an electrical injection machine (JSW EL II 85). In addition, the letting down process was done directly in the injection machine in order to establish the relevance of the previous extrusion process. The probes obtained were analyzed by DSC and FTIR to determine the functional groups of the resultant product and SEM and TEM to determine the quality of the dispersion of the nanotubes. The probes were finally tested to determine its stiffness and tensile properties. The results showed the feasibility to develop parts made of nanocomposite with improved performance with scaled industry equipment with natural reinforcements..