Some Aspects of Sustainable Energy Conversion During Transient Processes in Electric Power Systems Comprising Generator ...
Published: 31 October 2013
Proceedings of The 3rd World Sustainability Forum,
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This paper is a sequel to a study by the authors of the electric power systems comprising the generator circuit-breakers (GCBs) at power plant generator terminals. A sustainable assessment of the current interruption requirements of a GCB addresses the main stresses on the generator circuit breaker, revealing that the GCB current interruption requirements are significantly higher than for the distribution network circuit breakers. Hence, generator circuit-breakers are subject to unique demanding conditions caused my specific stresses, namely: high asymmetrical fault currents resulting from high d.c. components of the fault current; greater electrical, thermal and mechanical stresses when interrupting longer arcing time faults; and important dielectric stress after the electric arc extinction caused by the transient recovery voltage (TRV). This paper extends other studies of the authors of the energetic and exergetic transformation chain at the interruption current transient process in an electric power system that comprises the generator circuit-breaker, as well as the transient recovery voltage (TRV) which appears after the interruption of a short-circuit fed by the synchronous generator or by the main step-up transformer. For achieving the TRV equivalent configuration the authors applied the method of operational symmetrical components (o.s.c.), and utilized the operational impedances of synchronous generator and of main transformer, depending on the fault location. Modeling the transient recovery voltage of circuits emphasizes aspects with direct implications on commutation equipment. Thus, the o.s.c. method can be applied at the poles of any breaker, for any eliminated fault type, if the network configuration and elements are known. The TRV, which appears after the interruption of a short-circuit fed by the generator, may be considered like an oscillation, where the oscillation factor and the rising rate (RR) of the TRV are established by the electrical machine parameters: resistance, inductance and capacitance. Consequently, modeling of concentrated equivalent parameters of the synchronous generator at perturbations caused by current interruption transient processes is achieved in this study through an approach based on sustainability concepts. These findings allow for simulations of the transient recovery voltage and comparisons with experimental results.
Utilizing the Exergy Concept to Address Environmental Challenges of Electric Systems
Published: 11 October 2012
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Theoretically, the concepts of energy, entropy, exergy and embodied energy are founded in the fields of thermodynamics and physics. Yet, over decades these concepts have been applied in numerous fields of science and engineering, playing a key role in the analysis of processes, systems and devices in which energy transfers and energy transformations occur. The research reported here aims to demonstrate, in terms of sustainability, the usefulness of the embodied energy and exergy concepts for analyzing electric devices which convert energy, particularly the electromagnet. This study relies on a dualist view, incorporating technical and environmental dimensions. The information provided by energy assessments is shown to be less useful than that provided by exergy and prone to be misleading. The electromagnet force and torque (representing the driving force of output exergy), accepted as both environmental and technical quantities, are expressed as a function of the electric current and the magnetic field, supporting the view of the necessity of discerning interrelations between science and the environment. This research suggests that a useful step in assessing the viability of electric devices in concert with ecological systems might be to view the magnetic flux density B and the electric current intensity I as environmental parameters. In line with this idea the study encompasses an overview of potential human health risks and effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) caused by the operation of electric systems. It is concluded that exergy has a significant role to play in evaluating and increasing the efficiencies of electrical technologies and systems. This article also aims to demonstrate the need for joint efforts by researchers in electric and environmental engineering, and in medicine and health fields, for enhancing knowledge of the impacts of environmental ELF EMFs on humans and other life forms.