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Charles Nicholas Hewitt  - - - 
Top co-authors See all
Christopher D. F. Rogers

89 shared publications

School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom

Rachel Cooper

83 shared publications

Imagination, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK

John R. Bryson

72 shared publications

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B152TT, UK

I.F Jefferson

70 shared publications

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

A. Rob MacKenzie

54 shared publications

School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK

Publication Record
Distribution of Articles published per year 
(2001 - 2019)
Total number of journals
published in
Publications See all
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Hybrid life-cycle assessment for robust, best-practice carbon accounting C. Kennelly, M. Berners-Lee, C.N. Hewitt Published: 01 January 2019
Journal of Cleaner Production, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.231
DOI See at publisher website
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Introduction to Special Issue – In-depth study of air pollution sources and processes within Beijing and its surrounding... ZongBo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Roy M. H... Published: 15 October 2018
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, doi: 10.5194/acp-2018-922
DOI See at publisher website ABS Show/hide abstract
APHH-Beijing (Atmospheric Pollution and Human Health in a Chinese Megacity) is an international collaborative project to examine the emissions, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. The four research themes of APHH-China are: (1) sources and emissions of urban atmospheric pollution; (2) processes affecting urban atmospheric pollution; (3) exposure science and impacts on health; and (4) interventions and solutions to reduce health impacts. Themes 1 and 2 are closely integrated and support Theme 3, while Themes 1–3 provide scientific data for Theme 4 on the development of cost-effective solutions. A key activity within APHH-Beijing was the two month-long intensive field campaigns at two sites: (i) central Beijing, and (ii) rural Pinggu. The coordinated campaigns provided observations of the atmospheric chemistry and physics in and around Beijing during November–December 2016 and May–June 2017. The campaigns were complemented by numerical air quality modelling and air quality and meteorology data at the 12 national monitoring stations in Beijing. This introduction paper provides an overview of (i) APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it in Beijing, and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during the two field campaigns. The winter campaign was characterized by high PM2.5 pollution events whereas the summer experienced high ozone pollution events. Air quality was poor during the winter campaign, but less severe than in the same period in 2015 when there were a number of major pollution episodes. PM2.5 levels were relatively low during the summer period, matching the cleanest periods over the previous five years. Synoptic scale meteorological analysis suggests that the greater stagnation and weak southerly circulation in November/December 2016 may have contributed to the poor air quality.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Current global food production is sufficient to meet human nutritional needs in 2050 provided there is radical societal ... M. Berners-Lee, C. Kennelly, R. Watson, C. N. Hewitt Published: 18 July 2018
Elem Sci Anth, doi: 10.1525/elementa.310
DOI See at publisher website
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: An assessment of uncertain... Ben Langford, James Cash, W. Joe F. Acton, Amy C. Valach, Ch... Published: 22 May 2017
Biogeosciences Discussions, doi: 10.5194/bg-2017-196
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Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ~ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5–8 % and 4–5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of four depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. In order to best replicate the observed fluxes we propose a new weighted average method whereby the isoprene emission potential is calculated as the average of all flux observations divided by the average activity factor (γ) of the emission algorithm. This approach ensures that modelled fluxes always have the same average as the measurements. Using this new approach, with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites, Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500 µg m−2 h−1), Bosco Fontana, Italy (1610 ± 420 µg m−2 h−1), Castelporziano, Italy (43 ± 10 µg m−2 h−1), Ispra, Italy (7590 ± 1070 µg m−2 h−1) and the Observatoire de Haute Provence, France (7990 ± 1010 µg m−2 h−1). Ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials were then extrapolated to the leaf-level and compared to previous leaf-level measurements for Quercus robur and Quercus pubescens, two species thought to account for 50 % of the total European isoprene budget. The literature values agreed closely with emission potentials calculated using the G93 algorithm, which were 85 ± 75 µg g−1 h−1 and 78 ± 25 µg g−1 h−1 for Q. robur and Q. pubescens respectively. By contrast, emission potentials calculated using the G06 algorithm, the same algorithm used in a previous study to derive the European budget, were significantly lower, which we attribute to the influence of past light and temperature conditions. Adopting these new G06 specific emission potentials for Q. robur (55 ± 24 µg g−1 h−1) and Q. pubescens (47 ± 16 µg g−1 h−1) reduced the projected European budget by ~ 17 %. Our findings demonstrate that calculated isoprene emission potentials vary considerably depending upon the specific approach used in their calculation. Therefore, it is our recommendation that the community now adopt a standardised approach to the way in which micrometeorological flux measurements are corrected and used to derive isoprene, and other biogenic VOC, emission potentials. Modellers who use derived emission potentials should pay particular attention to the way in which an emission potential was derived and ensure that the algorithm they are using, and the implementation thereof, is consistent with that used to derive the emission potential. Our results show that, in the worst cases, failure to account for this may result in modelled fluxes that differ from observations by up to a factor of four.
Article 0 Reads 7 Citations Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornb... W. Joe F. Acton, Simon Schallhart, Ben Langford, Amy Valach,... Published: 10 June 2016
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, doi: 10.5194/acp-16-7149-2016
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This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone+methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9mgm−2h−1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7mgm−2h−1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.
Article 0 Reads 0 Citations Atmospheric mixing ratios of methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) in tropical, boreal, temperate and marine environments A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, E. Bourtsoukidis, B. De... Published: 25 April 2016
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, doi: 10.5194/acp-2016-317
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Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) enters the atmosphere following direct emission from vegetation and anthropogenic activities, as well as being produced by the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as n-butane. This study presents the first overview of ambient MEK measurements at six different locations, characteristic of forested, urban and marine environments. In order to understand better the occurrence and behaviour of MEK in the atmosphere, we analyse diel cycles of MEK mixing ratios, vertical profiles, ecosystem flux data, and HYSPLIT back trajectories, and compare with co-measured VOCs. MEK measurements were primarily conducted with proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) instruments. Results from the sites under biogenic influence demonstrate that vegetation is an important source of MEK. The diel cycle of MEK follows that of ambient temperature and the forest structure plays an important role in air mixing. At such sites a high correlation of MEK with acetone was observed (e.g. r2 = 0.96 for the SMEAR-Estonia site in a remote hemi-boreal forest in Tartumaa, Estonia, and r2 = 0.89 at the ATTO pristine tropical rainforest site in central Amazonia). Under polluted conditions, we observed strongly enhanced MEK mixing ratios. Overall, the MEK mixing ratios and flux data presented here indicate that both biogenic and anthropogenic sources contribute to its occurrence in the global atmosphere.