This is what I am: http://electrica.uc3m.es/grobles/
(1970 - 2018)
In the localization of electromagnetic or acoustic emitters, generally, when a pulse is radiated from a source, the wave will arrive to two receivers at different times. One of the advantages of measuring these time differences of arrival or TDOA is that it is not required a common clock as in other localization techniques based on the time of arrival of the pulse to the receiver. With only two sensors, all the possible points in the plane that would give the same TDOA describe a hyperbola. Using an independent third receiver and calculating the intersection of the three hyperbolas will give the position of the source. Therefore, planar localization of emitters using multilateration techniques can be solved at least with three receivers. This paper presents a method to locate sources in a plane with only two receivers reducing the number of acquisition channels and hence, the cost of the equipment. One of the receivers is in a fixed position and the other describes a circumference around the first one. The TDOA are measured at different angles completing a total turn and obtaining a periodic function, angle versus TDOA, that has all the geometric information needed to locate the source. The paper will show how to derive this function analytically with the distance from the fixed receiver to the source and a bearing angle as parameters. Then, it will be demonstrated that it is possible to fit the curve with experimental measurements to obtain the parameters of the position of the source.
Extracting tiny amounts of energy from non-conventional sources using Peltier cells, piezoelectrics, antennas or inductive probes has become very popular in recent years to power low-consuming sensors in IoT applications and smart grids. These energy harvesting methods rely on the continuous generation of small quantities of electrical energy scavenged from heat, vibration or electromagnetic emissions. This energy is stored in batteries or capacitors reaching low-voltage levels that cannot be used directly to power any device. In general, the voltage is boosted to more appropriate levels with a converter. Using inductive sensors to harvest energy from electrical power lines is common knowledge. Obtaining this energy from high-power low-frequency signals is currently possible and, in some cases, reliable and profitable. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of harvesting energy from extremely low-power and high-frequency events that occur in electrical assets when the insulation is damaged. These events, called partial discharges, are used in electrical maintenance to detect possible defects in the insulation. Evaluating partial discharge activity is a common protocol in all utilities that requires the use of expensive sensors and acquisition systems, and in most occasions, decommissioning the asset to connect the measuring system. The energy from these phenomena is stored in capacitors and the use of a high-frequency voltage multiplier allows to reach voltages close to 1 V. This voltage is proportional to the number of partial discharges in a certain time span. Therefore, if the number of partial discharges per time-unit has increased noticeably, the insulation has deteriorated and the asset should be decommissioned to evaluate the damages. The paper tests the possibility of using this method as an early-warning system in the maintenance of electrical assets.
Electrical insulation can have imperfections due to manufacturing or ageing. When the insulation is electrically stressed, discharges may happen in these inhomogeneous imperfect locations resulting in partial discharge (PD) which have very fast rise times and short time durations. Since charges are accelerated within PD activity, radiated electromagnetic energy across a wide bandwidth of frequencies can occur. The measurement of the radiated PD energy is widely employed to identify defective insulation within high voltage equipment. Based on assessment of the strength and nature of the emitted PD signals, determination is made to carry out predictive maintenance in order to prevent equipment breakdown. The location of emitted radiated PD signals may be determined using multi-lateration techniques using an array of at least 4 antennas. Depending on the relative position between the antennas and the PD source, the radiated emissions from the PD source arrive at each antenna at different times. The relative time differences of arrivals (TDOA) together with the antennas position are variables used to locate the PD source in 3D space. The effect on the location error of a PD source using TDOA calculations based on acquisition sample time errors is a topic which has previously been studied (see bibliography). This paper now investigates the accuracy on PD location as a consequence of error on the measured positions of the antennas. This paper evaluates the influence of positional antenna error on the possible accuracy of the localization of the PD source. This error is analyzed for 3 different antenna array layouts and for different vector directions from the arrays. Additionally, the least sensitive layout with regard to positioning errors is proposed to assist in improving the location accuracy of PD sources.
Rogowski coils are inductive sensors based on Faraday’s Law to measure currents through conductors without galvanic contact. The main advantage of Rogowski coils when compared with current transformers is the fact that the core is air so they never saturate and there is no limit in the frequency of the primary current. These characteristics makes Rogowski coils ideal candidates to measure high amplitude pulsed currents. On the contrary, there are two main drawbacks. On the one hand, the output voltage is the derivative of the primary current so it has to be integrated; and, on the other hand, the transfer function is resonant due to the turn-to-turn capacitance and the self-inductance of the coil. The solution is the use of a passive integration with a terminating resistor at the output of the sensor that splits the two complex poles and gives a constant transfer function for a determined bandwidth. The downside is a loss of sensitivity. Since it is possible to calculate the electrical parameters of the coil based on its geometrical dimensions, the geometry can be adapted to design sensors for different applications depending on the time characteristics of the input current. This paper proposes the design of Rogowski coils based on their geometric characteristics maximizing the gain-bandwidth product using particle swarm optimization and adapting the coil to the specific requirements of the application.